National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Coaxial and emulsion nanofibers for biomedical use
Korbelová, Gabriela ; Buzgo, Matej (advisor) ; Pavlů, Barbora (referee)
The current treatment of tissue injuries deal with numerous problems, such as limited healing capacity and immune response of the body. In many cases such obstacles does not allow a full regeneration of the injured tissues and the full resumption of its original features. Controlled delivery of growth factors has considerable importance for inducing wound healing for a wide range of defects. Biocompatible and biodegradable nanofibrous carriers prepared by electrospinning represent a universal platform for the delivery of a wide range of substances in regulated manner. The goal of this thesis is to create an overview and assessment of the nanofibrous systems for controlled drug release created by electrospinning with a focus on growth factors delivery. Nanofiber carrier offers a number of advantages, they are able to consistently deliver bioactive substance into the site of injury, maintain bioactivity of the substance and stimulate the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of target cells. Compared to the classic methods of tissue engineering using tissue grafts with the risk of their immune rejection these funkcionalized biodegradable carriers offers the possibility to create cell-free carrier systems. The work is divided into 4 chapters concerning the methods of preparation of nanofibrous...
Cellular labelling using non-usual magnetic nanoparticles
Kikerlová, Soňa ; Kotek, Jan (advisor) ; Pavlů, Barbora (referee)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) belongs to an imaging technique in a clinical practice. It is the method completely non-invasive for a patient, which allows three- dimensional imaging of the body based on the detection of hydrogen atoms of water molecules in individual tissues. Intensity of signal can be further influenced by adding a suitable contrast agent. It is necessary to perform basic in vitro and in vivo experiments on a cell cultures and animal models before a new contrast agents will be introduced into the clinical practice. This is due to potential side effects on living organisms. The current boom in nanotechnology offers a variety of nanomaterials including magnetic nanoparticles for decreasing the intensity of the MRI signal. The most common and longest used contrast agents for MRI are based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO). In this literature review will be presented uncommon types of magnetic nanoparticles which can also be used for the magnetic resonance imaging. Key words: magnetic resonance imaging, nanoparticle, cellular imaging
Receptors of NK cells
Hernychová, Lucie ; Novák, Petr (advisor) ; Pavlů, Barbora (referee)
NK cells play an important role as a part of the innate immune system, they however share many common features with cells of the adaptive immune system and they can modulate their functions as well. NK cells recognize non-self molecules (induced by viral infection or tumor transformation) through a wide variety of receptors on the cell surface. They also express receptors specific for their own structures, MHC glycoproteins. NK cells distinguish infected or transformed cells according to the quantity of these molecules on the target cell surface. Then NK cells allow apoptotic signals to cause cell death or the tolerance is established. They also promote inflammatory responses by the production of cytokines and chemokines. NK receptors can be grouped into activating, inhibitory, adhesion, cytokine, and chemokine receptors depending on their function. Based on interactions with appropriate ligands, NK cells exert cytotoxicity or they are inhibited. Moreover, their functions are influenced by the cytokine microenvironment. NK receptors can be also divided into C-type lectin and immunoglobulin superfamilies according to the structure. Ly49, NKG2/CD94 and NKR-P1 are receptor families that belong to the C-type lectin glycoproteins. These molecules have a type II transmembrane protein orientation and they...
The function of palmitoylation of membrane proteins in immune cells
Hanusová, Zdeňka ; Otáhal, Pavel (advisor) ; Pavlů, Barbora (referee)
Protein palmitoylation is a post-translation modification, which typically regulates the protein interaction with a membrane; apart from that, it can have various functions in protein regulation. Process of this modification covers covalent attachment of palmitate to an aminoacid residue in the target protein; identity of the aminoacid than determines the palmitoylation type. Most common is modification of a cystein residue - in that case we speak about so-called S-palmitoiyation. The exceptionality of this lipid modification type is in the reversibility of the whole process; this enables for example trafficking regulation of many proteins between various membrane compartments and ragulation of proteins' function. In vivo, palmitoylation of many proteins is mediated by enzymes protein acyltransferases, while depalmitoylation is mediated by enzymes acylprotein thioesterases. Palmitoylated proteins can be identified in wide spectrum of cellular types, also in immune cells. Palmitoylation plays here an important role, especially in interaction of signal proteins with lipid rafts and the related modulation of protein's function. Significance has palmitoylation also as a dynamic process, which mediates the right identification of protein's subcellular localization. This work is a review and it's aim is...
Activation and function of BH3-only proteins from the Bcl-2 family
Peterka, Martin ; Anděra, Ladislav (advisor) ; Pavlů, Barbora (referee)
The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) family of proteins comprises crucial regulators of apoptosis in metazoans. In mammals, Bcl-2 family members regulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which leads to the release of pro-apoptotic molecules from the mitochondrial intermembrane space and subsequent apoptosis. Defects in the Bcl-2 signaling can result in various pathological conditions including cancer. BH3-only proteins form a pro-apoptotic subset of the Bcl-2 family. They mainly act as sensors of various pro-apoptotic stimuli such as cytokine deprivation, genotoxic stress, activated "death receptors" and others. In mammals, over ten BH3-only proteins have been identified, eight of which have been linked to the regulation of MOMP. These "conventional" BH3-only proteins are Bim, Bid, Puma, Noxa, Bad, Hrk, Bik and Bmf. This thesis provides an overview of their origin, structure, activation and involvement in apoptosis.

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1 PAVLŮ, Blanka
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