National Repository of Grey Literature 26 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Bioactive molecules involved in blood processing by haematophagous monogeneans of the family Diplozoidae
Jedličková, Lucie ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Horn, Martin (referee) ; Sojka, Daniel (referee)
Monogeneans from the family Diplozoidae (subclass Heteronchoinea) are bloodfeeding ectoparasites inhabiting gills of common carp. Digestion of blood in diplozoids is an intracellular process taking place in gut cells within lysosomal cycle in the presence of parasite's peptidases. However, information about the blood digestion comes only from ultrastructural and histochemical analyses. Therefore, I have focused in this work on biochemical and molecular characteristics of bioactive molecules which may participate in blood processing by E. nipponicum adults, especially cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L- and B- types, aspartic peptidases of cathepsin D-type, and Kunitz-type inhibitors of serine peptidases. In homogenates and excretory/secretory (E/S) products of E. nipponicum adults, an activity of cysteine peptidases of cathepsins L-type dominated, followed by an activity of cathepsin D-like aspartic peptidases and a minor cathepsin B-like activity. Inhibitors of the abovementioned peptidase types completely blocked hemoglobinolytic activity in the samples. In the transcriptome of E. nipponicum adults, ten cathepsin L-coding transcripts were found and only one cathepsin B-coding transcript. Primary structures of the encoded enzymes were bioinformatically and phylogenetically compared. Two abundant...
Parasitic protease SmCB2 as a target for the treatment of schistosomiasis
Bakardjieva, Marina ; Mareš, Michael (advisor) ; Mikeš, Libor (referee)
Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are parasitic trematodes that cause schistosomiasis, a serious disease afflicting more than 240 million people. The proteolytic system of schistosomes is essential for their viability: it participates in important processes during host-parasite interactions such as food digestion, invasion and tissue migration. Thus, schistosomal proteases are promising molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in schistosomiasis treatment. The thesis focuses on the protease cathepsin B2 from S. mansoni (SmCB2) which has not been studied in detail so far in terms of biochemical properties and biological function. Recombinant SmCB2 was prepared using yeast and bacterial expression systems and was chromatographically purified. Using an in vitro activity assay, the first effective inhibitors of SmCB2 were identified which inhibited its proteolytic activity in submicromolar concentrations. Specific polyclonal antibodies against SmCB2 were prepared and used for immunomicroscopic localization of this protease on the surface of the parasite. ELISA analysis demonstrated that SmCB2 is a parasite antigen recognized by the host immune system in the mouse model of schistosomiasis. The thesis provides valuable information about SmCB2 as a potential target molecule for synthetic...
Anticoagulation factors and blood uptake by monogeneans of the family Diplozoidae
Skipalová, Karolína ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Sojka, Dan (referee)
For the successful food intake by organisms that feed on blood is essentials presence of antihaemostatic molecules such as vasodilators, anticoagulant molecules and apyrases., Although members of family Diplozoidae (Heteronchoinea) are blood-feeding parasites on the gills of the fish, these molecules, that could disrupt host hemostasis, have not yet been identified. Thus, the aim of this study was to find molecules with potential anticoagulant activity in homogenates of whole worm bodies and excretory/secretory products of the members of family Diplozoidae. Furthermore perform bioinformatics analysis of sequences obtained from transcriptom project of Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae) and selected proteins (protein domain) then expressed in a recombinant form. We tested inhibitory activity in excretory-secretory products and homogenates of members family Diplozoidae towards coagulation factors IIa and Xa and their specific fluorogenic with 4 negative and 1 positive results. From the results of two transcriptome analysis we discovered three protein families of potential anticoagulants - annexins, serpins and Kunitz-domain proteins. For further analyses we focused on the Kunitz protein family. These proteins contain one or more structurally related active domains which are able to...
Laboratory cycles of schistosomes, breeding of intermediate snail hosts and their ecological requirements
Nečasová, Monika ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Horák, Petr (referee)
The Schistosomatidae family is an important group of blood flukes, including serious human and livestock animal pathogens. With regard to reproduction, they are gonochoristic parasites. Their life cycle has two stages - asexual reproduction in an intermediary host (fresh water and sea gastropods) and sexual reproduction in the definitive host (mammals and birds). With regard to their pathogenicity at the definitive hosts, the blood fluke life cycle is abundantly maintained in laboratories. To preserve the whole cycle, the intermediary host gastropods are very important, They can include, without limitation, representatives of the Lymnaeidae family. However, their sensitivity to parasitism by blood flukes varies significantly by species. Floats were classified into several genera according to various parameters in the past. The systematics was most frequently based on anatomic and morphological differences. However, the most precise taxonomies are based on molecular data and mutual phylogenetic relationships of Lymnaeidaegastropods remain a subject of research. It is a fresh water family of gastropods with specific ecological and nutritional requirements. Summary information about their ecology estimate that the float gastropods are highly sensitive to the presence of heavy metals in water, such as...
Excretory-secretory proteins of schistosome intravertebrate stages in context of their biology
Konečný, Lukáš ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Kašný, Martin (referee)
Schistosomatidae is a family of blood-dwelling trematodes which cause serious disease in humans and warm blooded animals. Human schistosomiasis affects over 258 million people worldwide. The fundamental pathological manifestations of the disease are not caused by adult worms, but by responses to antigens released from eggs, which remain trapped in the tissues. All stages of these parasites release excretory-secretory products, which mostly comprise of proteins which are, to a certain extent, species- and stage-specific. These products have many functions that play roles in successful transmission of the parasite and its interactions with the host. Various approaches to the collection and analysis of these molecules do not always accurately reflect the secretory processes in vivo, because they always employ in vitro techniques. The research of these secreted molecules discovered many mechanisms, through which the parasite successfully modulates and evades host immune system. Despite the fact, that many of these molecules were identified as potential vaccine candidates, still no sufficiently effective vaccine has been developed. With great technological advances used for the identification of these proteins, this area is becoming more and more topical. This review focuses on composition of...
Calcium and calcium-dependent proteins in the biology of schistosomes
Bartoníček, Zikmund ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Horn, Martin (referee)
Blood flukes of genus the Schistosoma are blood dwelling parasites that affect over 200 million people causing seriously debilitating disease, schistosomiasis. Like in other life forms, calcium represents one of the key elements in schistosomes. Calcium affects egg hatching, penetration into the host, evasion of hosts immune system and other crucial aspects of Schistosoma life. It can regulate those processes in two ways; either directly, or through interaction with calcium-binding proteins. Those proteins are either expressed in every life stage of schistosomes or they can be stage-specific. It is those properties of calcium and calcium-dependent proteins, that make them a potent vaccine targets. The first pioneer in the calcium dependent protein based vaccines is soon to come to human trials. Until the efficient vaccine is developed, we are dependent purely on chemotherapy against schistosomiasis. At the moment the drug of first choice, praziquantel is used to treat those who suffer from schistosomiasis. Its mode of action is not entirely known, but is evidently directly linked to calcium homoeostasis of schistosomes. This thesis focuses on calcium and calcium-dependent proteins because of their role - either direct or indirect - in the stated processes. Also, increased understanding of calcium...
Cathepsins L of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum cercariae
Perháčová, Terézia ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Hartmann, David (referee)
This study is focused on cercarial cysteine peptidases of the trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum. It follows previous research which confirmed the presence of a 24kDa cysteine peptidase in cercariae biochemically and by mass spectrometry. It was postulated, that the function of this peptidase is histolytic, when cercariae penetrate the tissues. During an attempt to purify this peptidase and characterize its peptidolytic activity, it was found out that the cercarial homogenate containsmore different peptidases varying in their pI. Tests of peptidolytic activity and inhibition have shown that these peptidases are cathepsin L-like. They are active over a broad spectrum of pH with optima of activities in weakly acidicor neutral pH. Using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of cysteine pepridases, partial sequences of three genes for cathepsin L of D. pseudospataceum (DpCL1, 2 a 3) were obtained. Then the complete sequences of DpCL2 and 3 genes and partial sequence (without 5'end) of DpCL1 were obtained by RACE PCR. To confirm function of these peptidases we tried to immunolocalize them. We assumed that they are localized in penetration glands. Preliminary results suggested that some of the cathepsins could be also localized in the gut of cercariae. For more detailed biochemical...

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2 MIKEŠ, Lubomír
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