National Repository of Grey Literature 30 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Toxicity of perfluorinated hydrocarbons
Leifertová, Karolína ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Innemanová, Petra (referee)
Perfluorinated hydrocarbons are manmade chemicals used to make fluoropolymer coatings and products resistant to stains, oil, heat and water. Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants due to their persistance and ubiquity in the environment, biota and also humans. This paper focuses on toxicity of perfluorinated hydrocarbons, mainly PFOS and PFOA. A special attention is given to mechanism of toxicity of perfluorinated compounds, which have not yet been fully elucidated. Further studies should be performed to reveal the environmental risk assessment and mechanism of toxicity of perfluorinated compounds.
The effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on the development of soil hydrophobicity
Fojtová, Zuzana ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Šereš, Michal (referee)
In this work I have dealt with the influence of irrigation with treated wastewater on the development of soil hydrophobicity. In the theoretical part I deal with the influence of using treated wastewater on the development of hydrophobicity in soils irrigated in such manner, the methods used for measurement and in general the benefits and risks of application of treated wastewater to soil. In the practical part, I focused on measuring hydrophobicity using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method. Soil samples originated from the Hostětín, where a long-term irrigation test with treated wastewater is underway. For the purpose of testing the WDPT method, soil samples taken at the beginning of the experiment (in 2018) were used, as well as long-term irrigated samples with treated wastewater from the constructed wetland under laboratory conditions. As a control served irrigation with well water and part of the samples from both variants was additionally irrigated with rainwater, which simulated the amount of precipitation that fell on average in the Zlín Region during the experiment. The water used for this experiment came from a constructed wetland close to the Perlová voda complex near Kostelec nad Ohří in the Ústí Region. The samples were irrigated for one year. The method was further tested on...
Composting of materials contaminated by micropollutants
Kočí, Petra ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Innemanová, Petra (referee)
Micropollutants are compounds of anthropogenic origin, detected at concentrations of ng·g-1 - mg·g-1 in the environment. Micropollutants are synthetic or natural compounds. Micropollutants are released into the environment due to various human activities. Despite low concentrations in the environment, they represent a real threat to organisms, because of their specific biological effects. Sewage sludge is used in agriculture due to its hight nutritious content. Via using sludge in agriculture, contained micropollutants can be released to environment. Composting is a cheap bioremediation method, used from 80's of the last century. This diploma thesis is focused on composting of sewage sludge, contamined with micropollutants. High degradation rate was observed in artificially contaminated sludge, mainly with endocrine disruptors (up to 100 %). Lower degradation rate was observed in sewage sludge from a pharmaceutical plant, some of the compounds were not degraded at all.
Separation of microplastics from sewage sludge using heavy liquids
Pospíchalová, Eliška ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on microplastics in sewage sludge. Microplastics are currently often discussed topic, but their occurrence in sewage sludge isn't still sufficiently researched. The main source of microplastics in sewage sludge is waste water. Microplastics are accumulating in sewage sludge during wastewater treatment and enter terrestrial ecosystems with multiple times higher concentration in comparison to freshwaters as a result of their use in agriculture or in restoration. In the year of 2017 sewage sludge was in Czech Republic further processed by direct land application within agriculture and restoration of 42 %, compostation of 34 %, other uses of 14 %, landfilling of 7 % and incineration of 3 %. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture demonstrates significance of microplastics issue. The tested samples were sampled from five anonymous wastewater treatment plants in Czech Republic. The samples were investigated for applicability of methodology of separation microplastics with oxidation of natural organic matter by Fe2+ + 30 % H2O2 and flotation in saline solution of 5 M NaCl. Following identification of microplastics was carried out in optical microscope with magnification of 40x. For precise optical detection of microplastics the samples were dyed with rose bengal. The...
Using a modified biocharge to capture ammonia from the exhaust air
Kozlíková, Nikola ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
In my work I have dealt with the comparison of different types of biochar based solid materials, which could serve as a filling for ammonia capture filters. Three samples of biochar prepared from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge were used to test the most suitable material at temperatures of 200 ř C, 400 ř C and 600 ř C, 3 samples of biochar prepared from oak wood at temperatures of 260 ř C, 400 ř C and 600 ř C, 2 samples of biochar prepared from a mixture of sewage sludge and wood chips pre-dried in a pilot scale biological drying plant, dried anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge and charcoal. The materials were impregnated with 50% sulfuric acid solution. They were then exposed to ammonia vapors for the time needed to complete the reaction on the surface of the impregnated material. Due to the chemical reaction, ammonium sulfate is produced, which can be used as a fertilizer in agriculture. It is known that the addition of biochar has a positive effect on the soil. In the case of a combination of biochar and ammonium sulphate, this may be an interesting soil additive. It could be an alternative to so-called scrubbers, where ammonia is trapped by bubbling dilute sulfuric acid. Transportation and application of the ammonium sulphate solution thus formed is not economically advantageous. To...
Utilization of phospholipid fatty acids analysis for biodrying study
Stránská, Štěpánka ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Innemanová, Petra (referee)
The aim of this thesis is the utilization of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis to determine groups of microorganisms present during the biodrying of sewage sludge and their description in relation to the temperature regime of the biodrying. Four experimental cycles A, B, C, D were followed. Cycles A, B and C, D differred from each other in the sewage sludge collected from two waste water treatment plants. The cycles A, B, C and D were each performed in two reactors with different aeration regimes to compare the mesophilic (max. temperature ±50 řC) and thermophilic (max. temperature ±70 řC) regimes of biodrying. PLFA analysis was used to determine the microbial groups. Concentrations of individual PLFA were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The total PLFA concentration corresponding to total microbial biomass was decreasing during both temperature regimes of cycles B, C, D, while the total PLFA concentration increased towards the end of both temperature regimes of cycle A. The total PLFA concentration reached statistically higher values at the end of the mesophilic regime of cycles B, C and D. The development of fungi to bacteria ratio showed that fungi applied more with the progression of both temperature regimes of cycles A, B and the thermophilic regime of cycle C. Based on...
Characteristics of worm tea - the liquid product of vermicomposting and perspectives of its subsequent use
Klubalová, Kateřina ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Zídková, Ljuba (referee)
Vermicomposting is a possible method for reducing the amount of landfilled bio- waste. The product of vermicomposting is called worm tea. The thesis deals with the issue of composition and possible usage of worm tea, which is a liquid product of vermicomposting. The aim was to assess the composition and properties of worm tea samples provided from households. Then a mixed sample was tested as a nutrient solution for hydroponic growing. One year operation of a small vermicomposter as a mean of community bio-waste disposal was also assessed in the thesis. Conductivity, pH, content of selected cations and anions and TOC were determined for each worm tea sample. Values of conductivity were then assessed by a correlation test with inhibition values gained from an ecotoxicological test with Sinapis alba. Testing of worm tea as a nutrient solution was done in an opened hydroponic system with Lactuca sativa seedlings. Results show that samples of worm tea are very different and they can not be watered down according to their conductivity as was hypothesised. The largest percentage of samples evinced stimulating qualities in a concentration of 2,5 %. Worm tea can be used as an alternative of nutrient solution for hydroponic growth and it has potential for utilization as an stimulant for germination and...
The potential for collecting used cooking oil in the Czech republic
Dalecká, Kateřina ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Matějíček, Luboš (referee)
Used cooking oil is currently a very little solved topic in area of handling municipal waste. It has not been deal with this in legislative yet so it is really important to look for solution how to collect used cooking oil from household and how to use it again. Used kitchen oil is produced in households during frying. In these days some villages and cities have special places where can be used cooking oil collected, but there are not many of them. Ministry of the Environment establishes an obligation to sort the used cooking oil in cities of the Czech Republic. . First part of this thesis examinates how used kitchen oil can be utilized. It can be used in waste-to-energy facilities, in biogas plants, can be converted to biodiesel or can be used as culture medium for the production of bioplastics. Second part shows how used cooking oil is separated and cities which option of separation is the best from economical and practical point of view. There are collections points in public places like supermarket in Austria. People can simply exchange full jar for empty one. Next good solution is location of collections points in companies ans schools, because they are daily visited by people. Third part is focused on questionnaires survey. First questionnaire it is aimed on villages and cities. Second on...
Biodegradation of lightweight polyurethanes in soil and subsequent analysis of their degradation products
Pražanová, Kateřina ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
According to the Waste Framework Directie 2008/98/ES and the Czech law on waste 185/2001 Sb., waste preienton is the main priority in waste management. Using biodegradable plastcs seems to represent a suitable approach in fulflling the strategy. The subject of this diploma thesis is biodegradable lightweight polyurethanes (PURs), which might represent suitable materials for repellent fences in agricultural landscapes. Biodegradaton processes are assumed to begin in the agricultural soil afer their lifetme. The biodegradability of new lightweight PURs (BIO 8-10), presented as material mineralizaton, was tested in agricultural soil under laboratory conditons according to the ASTM Internatonal standard method D5988-03. Afer the nine-month experiment the material with the highest biodegradability (BIO 10) containing starch (28 wt. %) was mineralized to 42.0 ± 4.2 %. Cellulose (the positie control) was completely mineralized; thus, the ialidity criterion (positie control mineralizaton > 70 %) was accomplished. Afer the biodegradability test, degradaton products (residual PURs) were separated from the soil by a two-step method using fuidisaton and fotaton, according to a modifed procedure described in Nuelle et al. (2014). The procedure enabled a subsequent analysis of PUR residues with Fourier transform...

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