National Repository of Grey Literature 63 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Securing cities: 'Urban resilience' as a technology of government
Svitková, Katarína ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Hájek, Martin (referee) ; Chandler, David (referee)
Svitková, K. 2019. Securing cities: 'Urban resilience' as a technology of government, 282 pp. Doctoral thesis (PhD) Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Political Studies. Department of Security Studies. Academic supervisor: doc. PhDr. PNDr. Nikola Hynek, M. A., PgDip Res, PhD Abstract Resilience has become a buzzword in policy and practice of 'securing' and 'developing' cities and urban populations. This study discusses the use of this concept in the context of governance of subjectivities. More specifically, reflecting its empirical focus, it poses critical questions about constructing and promoting 'urban resilience subjects', and scrutinizes the process of internalization of resilience as a self-governance technique, self-imposed on and by citizens for their own good. The purpose is to problematize resilience as a universal tool or strategy to govern cities and their inhabitants, be it in ordinary or extreme circumstances. The study ventures beyond the traditional critique of neoliberalism to ask questions about what resilience does in terms of a performative governance, exploring the disciplinary and biopolitical nature of this process. Keywords resilience, governmentality, urban, cities, power, biopolitics
"Sinking Islands" and the United Nations Security Council
Bruner, Tomáš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bílková, Veronika (referee) ; Karlas, Jan (referee)
Certain Small Island Developing States (hereinafter the "SIDS") such as Kiribati or Tuvalu are often incorrectly called "sinking islands" because their highest points are located just a few meters above the sea level. Sea level rise may turn their territories to uninhabitable land gradually disappearing beneath the tide. Worsening of the environmental conditions causes internal displacement, migration and other problems. SIDS repeatedly brought their plight to the United Nations Security Council (the "UNSC") during its meetings in 2007, 2011, 2015, 2018 and 2019. They demanded that the UNSC should deal with their situation as a potential security issue and safeguard more equal distribution of environmental security risks and costs. During the UNSC negotiations, various states attempted to interpret and re-interpreted the UNSC mandate in order to suit their interests. The representatives of SIDS suggested that the UNSC should be a body based on the principles of distributive justice decision-making and thus safeguard fairer sharing of threats and burdens, including those of environmental character. The rapidly developing states strongly opposed; they implicitly claimed that the UNSC should be based rather on the principles of commutative justice, i.e. decide in strictly given situations of violations of...
Non-Western Approaches to Statehood
Karmazin, Aleš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Pšeja, Pavel (referee) ; Ogden, Chris (referee)
This thesis studies the variation of sovereignty in the international order by analysing how the general model of sovereignty is localised in the political practice of two major non-Western rising powers - China and India. I argue that their sovereignty should be understood as liquid despite the fact that these two countries are very often seen as strong defenders of 'conservative', 'absolutist' or 'Westphalian' sovereignty. The empirical core of the thesis investigates China's approach to sovereignty in relation to Hong Kong and Taiwan and India's approach to sovereignty in relation to Bhutan and Kashmir. Based on theoretical eclecticism and pluralism, I develop a theoretical and analytical framework that accounts for constitution (construction) of the sovereignty of China and India but that also have potential for being applied more broadly. It is calibrated to elucidate that sovereignty is a liquid and fluid phenomenon. It is based on the debate between Hans Kelsen and Carl Schmitt and analytically enhanced by including the perspective of scaling (derived from Human Geography) and temporal positioning (inspired by International Relations debates on the role of time). I propose three key argument. First, I show that each of the analysed states simultaneously pursues two different modes of...
The Power Rivarly between China and India: Managing the Buffer Zone between the Two States
Horehaj, Adam ; Karmazin, Aleš (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
The presented master's thesis titled The Power Rivalry between China and India: Managing the Buffer Zone between the Two States examines the strategic behaviour of China and India with respect to the buffer zone located around their common border. In recent years, it is possible to observe a higher intensity or tension in the mutual relations of China and India on both the regional, as well as global level. In regard to China and India, the buffer zone located near their common border is a distinctive factor of strategic importance that influences the dynamics within mutual Sino-Indian relations. The main pillars of the analysis of China's and India's policy towards each other and towards the common buffer zone present in the thesis are offensive and defensive realism in combination with the geopolitics of buffer zones. From the analytical point of view, the thesis divided into two parts. The first part of the analysis focuses on the common Sino-Indian border and adjacent areas, and whether it is possible to characterized them as the buffer zone. The second part concentrates specifically on China and India and their policies, not just towards each other, but towards the buffer zone as well. Regional interactions of China and India are analysed especially from the perspective of offensive and...
"Sinking Islands" and the United Nations Security Council
Bruner, Tomáš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bílková, Veronika (referee) ; Karlas, Jan (referee)
Certain Small Island Developing States (hereinafter the "SIDS") such as Kiribati or Tuvalu are often incorrectly called "sinking islands" because their highest points are located just a few meters above the sea level. Sea level rise may turn their territories to uninhabitable land gradually disappearing beneath the tide. Worsening of the environmental conditions causes internal displacement, migration and other problems. SIDS repeatedly brought their plight to the United Nations Security Council (the "UNSC") during its meetings in 2007, 2011, 2015, 2018 and 2019. They demanded that the UNSC should deal with their situation as a potential security issue and safeguard more equal distribution of environmental security risks and costs. During the UNSC negotiations, various states attempted to interpret and re-interpreted the UNSC mandate in order to suit their interests. The representatives of SIDS suggested that the UNSC should be a body based on the principles of distributive justice decision-making and thus safeguard fairer sharing of threats and burdens, including those of environmental character. The rapidly developing states strongly opposed; they implicitly claimed that the UNSC should be based rather on the principles of commutative justice, i.e. decide in strictly given situations of violations of...
Securing cities: 'Urban resilience' as a technology of government
Svitková, Katarína ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Hájek, Martin (referee) ; Chandler, David (referee)
Svitková, K. 2019. Securing cities: 'Urban resilience' as a technology of government, 282 pp. Doctoral thesis (PhD) Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Political Studies. Department of Security Studies. Academic supervisor: doc. PhDr. PNDr. Nikola Hynek, M. A., PgDip Res, PhD Abstract Resilience has become a buzzword in policy and practice of 'securing' and 'developing' cities and urban populations. This study discusses the use of this concept in the context of governance of subjectivities. More specifically, reflecting its empirical focus, it poses critical questions about constructing and promoting 'urban resilience subjects', and scrutinizes the process of internalization of resilience as a self-governance technique, self-imposed on and by citizens for their own good. The purpose is to problematize resilience as a universal tool or strategy to govern cities and their inhabitants, be it in ordinary or extreme circumstances. The study ventures beyond the traditional critique of neoliberalism to ask questions about what resilience does in terms of a performative governance, exploring the disciplinary and biopolitical nature of this process. Keywords resilience, governmentality, urban, cities, power, biopolitics
Weaponization of Outer Space: Double-Edged Blade of Dual-Use Technology
Pražák, Jakub ; Doboš, Bohumil (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
The thesis considered the feasibility of space warfare with an emphasis on the malicious potential of dual-use technology. I have described the orbital principles and set the presumptions of space warfare and the principles for space warfare strategy, introduced dual- use technology and its connections to space weapons, elaborated on existing counterspace capabilities and its impact, described the challenges for space warfare and evaluated the utilization of dual-use technology as space weapons. I have reached the conclusion that current space technology does not allow to lead extensive space warfare. However, counterspace technology is mature enough for the conduct of destructive space operations and states are encouraged to proliferate advanced offensive counterspace capabilities that are not sufficiently addressed and bounded to international law. Though, despite it seems space warfare is unlikely, the growing tensions of state space actors and rapid development of new technology that is currently mostly driven by the commercial actors may soon change the situation. Potentially destructive dual-use technology may then increase the risk and probability of space warfare. The thesis proposed several options of potentially destructive dual-technology technology that could be turned into space weapons.
Non-Western Approaches to Statehood
Karmazin, Aleš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Pšeja, Pavel (referee) ; Ogden, Chris (referee)
This thesis studies the variation of sovereignty in the international order by analysing how the general model of sovereignty is localised in the political practice of two major non-Western rising powers - China and India. I argue that their sovereignty should be understood as liquid despite the fact that these two countries are very often seen as strong defenders of 'conservative', 'absolutist' or 'Westphalian' sovereignty. The empirical core of the thesis investigates China's approach to sovereignty in relation to Hong Kong and Taiwan and India's approach to sovereignty in relation to Bhutan and Kashmir. Based on theoretical eclecticism and pluralism, I develop a theoretical and analytical framework that accounts for constitution (construction) of the sovereignty of China and India but that also have potential for being applied more broadly. It is calibrated to elucidate that sovereignty is a liquid and fluid phenomenon. It is based on the debate between Hans Kelsen and Carl Schmitt and analytically enhanced by including the perspective of scaling (derived from Human Geography) and temporal positioning (inspired by International Relations debates on the role of time). I propose three key argument. First, I show that each of the analysed states simultaneously pursues two different modes of...
Securitization of education in contemporary Europe
Lehutová, Kristína ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to analyze the current state of policies proposed to address the issue of radicalization in Europe. More specifically, the thesis deals with the topic of the fight against radicalization through education. The paper highlights how security debate in Europe is changing the understanding of educational institutions and their role in anti-radicalization policies. In the past, states in Europe had to deal with various forms of violence caused by either separatist movements or other radical and extremist ideologies. Unfortunately, the problem of the occasional outbreak of violence has not been resolved yet in Europe. In relation to the theme of radicalization, the role of educational institutions is perceived as significant to counter the process. They are considered to be the main institutions able to support the social inclusion and critical thinking of students during the globalization and modernization of Internet technologies. For these reasons, educational institutions should be responsible for protecting European students and pupils and preventing them from being drawn to extremism. This work, however, points out that this understanding is not the only way promoted by governments to tackle radicalization through the sector of education. The role of educational...
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...

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