National Repository of Grey Literature 56 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Non-Western Approaches to Statehood
Karmazin, Aleš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Pšeja, Pavel (referee) ; Ogden, Chris (referee)
This thesis studies the variation of sovereignty in the international order by analysing how the general model of sovereignty is localised in the political practice of two major non-Western rising powers - China and India. I argue that their sovereignty should be understood as liquid despite the fact that these two countries are very often seen as strong defenders of 'conservative', 'absolutist' or 'Westphalian' sovereignty. The empirical core of the thesis investigates China's approach to sovereignty in relation to Hong Kong and Taiwan and India's approach to sovereignty in relation to Bhutan and Kashmir. Based on theoretical eclecticism and pluralism, I develop a theoretical and analytical framework that accounts for constitution (construction) of the sovereignty of China and India but that also have potential for being applied more broadly. It is calibrated to elucidate that sovereignty is a liquid and fluid phenomenon. It is based on the debate between Hans Kelsen and Carl Schmitt and analytically enhanced by including the perspective of scaling (derived from Human Geography) and temporal positioning (inspired by International Relations debates on the role of time). I propose three key argument. First, I show that each of the analysed states simultaneously pursues two different modes of...
Securitization of education in contemporary Europe
Lehutová, Kristína ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to analyze the current state of policies proposed to address the issue of radicalization in Europe. More specifically, the thesis deals with the topic of the fight against radicalization through education. The paper highlights how security debate in Europe is changing the understanding of educational institutions and their role in anti-radicalization policies. In the past, states in Europe had to deal with various forms of violence caused by either separatist movements or other radical and extremist ideologies. Unfortunately, the problem of the occasional outbreak of violence has not been resolved yet in Europe. In relation to the theme of radicalization, the role of educational institutions is perceived as significant to counter the process. They are considered to be the main institutions able to support the social inclusion and critical thinking of students during the globalization and modernization of Internet technologies. For these reasons, educational institutions should be responsible for protecting European students and pupils and preventing them from being drawn to extremism. This work, however, points out that this understanding is not the only way promoted by governments to tackle radicalization through the sector of education. The role of educational...
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...
The Future Utilisation of Space: Orbital Debris and the Space Security Agenda
Oxton, Joe ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
The growth in orbital debris has been predicted since the dawn of the space age. Now the debris fields cascade through orbits and the risk of collision is on an infinite upward trajectory. This thesis will examine what impact a wider concept of space security can have our understanding of orbital debris and the space security agenda. The space security agenda is in a state a flux as it seeks the most effective way to deal with the threat posed by orbital debris. A traditionally narrow approach of security would see debris discarded as a security threat due to its limited threat to a state. However, a broader approach would see aspects of environmental security emerge, allowing both public and private sectors to act to solve this crisis. There is a sizeable void in the literature that links policy and science when analysing orbital debris. Therefore, when applying the theory, it is best to find consensus and collaboration. The Copenhagen and Welsh Schools of International Security offer opposing views initially. Nonetheless, when examined closely they reveal similarities that allow for a 'hybrid' theory to emerge. The international challenges to legal and policy changes are diverse and complex. Consequently, the significance of transparency and confidence- building measures to lead space policy and...
NATO and the EU: Institutional Cooperation and Competition in European Security
Grissom, Emma ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
The institutional relationship between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) is ostensibly predicated on shared values and interests. In the area of European security, this relationship has been observed to be both cooperative and competitive; both ineffectual and progressive. In practice, there are numerous accounts of the competitive gridlock at the bureaucratic level and member state in-fighting that counteracts any tactical progress. This analysis examines the relationship between NATO and the EU and the conditions under which they cooperate effectively, or devolve into open competition. Through the lens of three demanding humanitarian crises, this analysis argues that the keys to effective cooperation are institutional autonomy over security and defense measures, and clear positioning of their role in institutional interactions. The first formative interaction between the EU (WEU) and NATO in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1993-1995, 2004) established that Europe required a security infrastructure separate from the NATO's existing military behemoth. It also crucially revealed that international recognition and legitimacy plays a significant role in the behavior and formation of these institutional identities. Months later, the open rivalry between NATO and the EU...
Campaign to stop 'killer robots': prospects of a preemptive ban on autonomous weapons systems
Rosendorf, Ondřej ; Smetana, Michal (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
This thesis addresses the issue of autonomous weapons systems and their potential preventive prohibition with regard to current international discussions at multilateral forums such as the Human Rights Council, First Committee of the General Assembly, and Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons at UN. The aim of this thesis is to provide an extensive empirical account of the substance of those discussions and their most likely outcome, estimating state preferences with use of content analysis and the likely outcome with median voter prediction. From a theoretical standpoint, the thesis draws from defensive realism and contributions of arms control, arms trade as well as institutionalist literature from which it draws the concept of legalization. From a methodological standpoint, the thesis relies on quantitative methods, in particular, content analysis for collection of data and median voter theorem for prediction of the likely outcome. In addition, the thesis uses the method of regression analysis to examine states' activity at the aforementioned fora. In conclusion, the thesis finds that the most likely outcome of discussions on autonomous weapons systems is a moderate-obligation form of hybrid regulation, which includes solutions such as framework convention and moratorium. Further finding of...
China's Identity in Relations to North Korea
Vlčková, Michala ; Karmazin, Aleš (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with Chinese national identities that can be found in its foreign policy towards North Korea. At the beginning of this thesis the basic notion of national identity is defined and the overall methodological procedure of the submitted work is presented. Subsequently, Chinese identities and the basic historical context necessary to understand the broader context of this work are presented in more detail. Then we analyze Chinese statements and Chinese foreign policy in relation to North Korea and determine the possible occurrence of some of the Chinese national identities. In the conclusion of our analysis, we find that Chinese common identities apparent in China's global orientation are only partially found in China's policy towards North Korea. From the analysis of both Chinese statements and foreign policy, it is clear that there are some elements typical of individual identities, most often for the identity of China as one of the great powers. Even though we find that the progressive traditional Chinese-North Korean fraternal relations are weakening, the analysis of Chinese identities confirms the historical specificity of this relationship and, in general, both these nations.
Reconstructing Nuclear Deviance: Stigma Politics and the Rules of Nonproliferation Game
Smetana, Michal ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Eichler, Jan (referee) ; Grzelczyk, Virginie (referee)
In this dissertation, my aim is to unpack the relationship between deviant behavior and normative change in global nuclear politics. I draw on the interactionist approach in sociology to conceptualize "stigma politics" as an interactive, dynamic process of the social construction of deviance in international affairs. I connect these insights with contemporary IR theories on norm contestation to theorize the way how (re)constructions of deviance contest and affirm boundaries of appropriate behavior in social orders. I employ this theoretical perspective to study the (re)constructions of "nuclear deviance" in global nuclear order, and the dynamics of norms and rules in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty regime.
Terrorism: Difficulties in Countering U.S. Phenomenon of Self-radicalisation in the Digital Era
Angelini, Paul Michael ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Florea, Adrian (referee)
Due to the heightened prevalence of Islamic extremism coupled with the wide acceptance of online social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter,Youtube, etc.), what was once a regional phenomenon established only in areas housing terrorist networks particularly the Middle East, has now found its way to the doors tep of many Western countries. Considering the extremeness of radicalisation, many ponder how an individual could adopt such a behavior and, or, beliefs that bolster his or her engagement in subversive and terrorist activity. Accordingly, what was formerly assumed to be the existence of a single, universally applied, terrorist personality, is now understood as a gradual process undergone by individuals motivated by separate agend as and incentives. Although the process of engaging in terrorism or violent extremism has been argued to be the product of radicalisation and the development of extreme ideologies; radicalising by developing or adopting extremist beliefs that justify violence is just one possible pathway into terrorism involvement (Borum, 2011). Alternatively,it is important to note that most people who hold radical ideas do not end up engaging in terrorism, just as all terrorists may not be as deeply ideological as they are perceived to be. Likewise,though the rapid spread and influence of...

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