National Repository of Grey Literature 178 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
A Potential Neuroprotective Action of Ghrelin on Dopaminergic Neurons Transplanted into the 6-hydroxydopamine Lesioned Rat
Zayaková, Kristýna ; Fikrová, Petra (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative chronic disorder which is characterised by loss of dopamine in nigrostriatal pathway in the brain. One of the alternative therapies is transplantation of embryonic ventral mesencephalon tissue to the affected brain area but currently grafted cells do not survive the transplantation process very well. Ghrelin, which has neuroprotective properties could be a potential additional treatment after transplantation with the intention of increasing the number of live cells in the graft. The aim of this study was to elucidate a presence of ghrelin receptor in embryonic ventral mesencephalon used in transplantation and assess behavior of rats after transplantation. Immunocytochemistry was performed for ghrelin receptor, ghrelin-O-acetyl transferase, tyrosine hydroxylase and for neural and stem cell markers in embryonic ventral mesencephalon suspension. 50 Sprague-Dawley rats with 6-hydroxy- dopamine lesions were split into five groups; Group A was non-transplanted group, other groups underwent transplantation of embryonic ventral mesencephalon and received diverse treatments (ghrelin agonist, low doses of ghrelin, high doses of ghrelin or saline1 ). Behavior of all animals was assessed by motor tests pre- transplantation and 4 weeks, 6 week and 8 weeks after...
Methods for diagnosing the local staging of breast cancer
Malčíková, Barbora ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hradec Králové Department: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Head of thesis: PhDr. Zděnka Kudláčková, Ph.D. Consultant: MUDr. Petr Motyčka Student: Bc. Barbora Malčíková Title of the thesis: Methods for diagnosing the local staging of breast cancer Objective of the thesis: The aim of this diploma thesis was to get acquainted with the diagnostics of breast cancer, focusing on differences in clinical and pathological findings. Background: Differences in tumor size vary. There are tumors in which size is determined correctly (possibly with a tolerance of 20%) and tumors that have a large difference in the size determined by clinician and pathologist. Reasons are not known. However, differences in clinical and pathological findings are not statistically significant. Conclusions: Sufficient prevention by women and early diagnosis of breast cancer is a basic criterion for successful treatment and diagnosis of this disease. To investigate the causes of differences in clinical and pathological findings of tumors, further testing should be performed in a larger group of patients. Key words: breast cancer, breast cancer types, breast cancer diagnostics, breast cancer therapy, sonography, mammography, biochemical tumor markers
Neurobiology of anxiety disorders
Fišerová, Lucia ; Herink, Josef (advisor) ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on neurobiology of anxiety and is supported by corresponding literature search. In the thesis individual anxiety disorders are described together with selected risk factors important for the development of this disease. It also deals with biological hypotheses involving various changes in neurotransmitter systems and the influence of stress. Furthermore, it deals with fear conditioning, extinction of fear response and overgeneralization, all of which are forms of fear learning. Amygdala represents an important brain center of anxiety, consequently a description of its funcion along with amygdallar circuits are included in this thesis and different functions of other brain parts are described as well. Moreover, this thesis is concerned with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the influence of individual hormones on anxiety. Lastly, the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin and current studies regarding possibility of its use in therapy are presented. Key words: amygdala, anxiety disorders, corticotrophin releasing hormone, fear, circuits of anxiety and fear, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, oxytocin, stress
Bioethics VIII - Integration and socialization of psychiatric patients
Kuntsevich, Anastasiya ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Background: To get acquainted with the principles and extensive problems of bioethics in the field of psychiatry: from historical prejudices to the present time. Pay attention to the issue of social rehabilitation of people with mental disorders. Focus on the current legislation, strategy for mental health reforms reforming and international experience. Main findings: A lot of important decisions and approvals of statutes are based on philosophical terms such as morality, conscience, dignity, etc. Ethical dilemmas are not easy, especially when it comes to mental illnesses. Therefore, the interests of the patients must be protected by law. The problem of protecting the rights of the mentally ill is a global issue, which is also highlighted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Council of Europe. In the history of the psychiatric care in Czech Republic, nothing has changed for about 25 years, so postponing the reform was no longer possible. Therefore, in 2013, a strategy for the reform of the psychiatric care was developed, focusing on the transition to a community complex and multidisciplinary care. Conclusion: Given that the whole reform will take 15-20 years and the first stage will end in 2021, we will be able to judge the transformation later. But we can say now that the mental health...
Blood-testis barrier - role in the regulation of spermatogenesis in pathological conditions.
Častulová, Kristýna ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Background The aim of this thesis was to bring the theoretical part of the latest findings on the structural composition and functionality of the blood-testis barrier and its importance in working with biological agents that would influence the development and maturation of gametes. In the experimental part, the possible impairment of the complexity of the blood-testis barrier by application of model xenobiotics - busulfan - was studied by histopathological analysis. Methods Adult male Wistar rats, which were treated with busulfan intaperitoneally, were used for the experiment. The first group of animals received 1 dose of busulfan (40 mg / kg body weight). The second group of rats were given two doses of busulfan (10 mg / kg body weight) 21 days apart (days 1 and 21). Animals were divided into 6 groups and sacrificed 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 70 days after the second busulfan dose. Immediately after sacrificing rats, the abdominal cavity was opened and the testicles removed. After removal of adipose tissue, the length and weight of both testes were recorded. The testicles were then subjected to histological processing. The prepared histological preparations were evaluated under a light microscope. Results The archival histological material of the Department of Biological and Medical Sciences was used...
Determination of pharmacological properties of potencial drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Schejbalová, Kateřina ; Herink, Josef (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Mgr. Kateřina Schejbalová Supervisor: Doc. MUDr. Josef Herink, Dr.Sc. Consultant: Kpt. PharmDr. Vendula Hepnarová Title of thesis: Determination of pharmacokinetic properties of potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an illness caused by neurodegenerative changes in the brain tissue. It belongs to the diseases that lead to the origin of dementia. The occurrence of this illness has been rising over past years. Unfortunately, the causative treatment has not been found yet and the only available treatment is the symptomatic one. Therefore, it is necessary strive towards the discovery new and more efficient drugs. The aim of this thesis is to determinate the inhibiting concentrations and to measure the antioxidative activity of the new synthetic potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Seven hybrids of 6 - chlorotacrine - tryptophan (6-Cl-THA-Trp), 7 - methoxytacrine - tryptophan (7-MEOTA-Trp) and tacrine - tryptophan (THA-Trp) were tested. The in vitro inhibiting potentials of the tested compounds against human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were evaluated. Spectrophotometer was used for the measurements by...
Neoadjuvant therapies in patients with oesophageal carcinoma and the effect of therapy on renal function
Koláčková, Pavla ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Candidate: Mgr. Pavla Koláčková Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Vladimír Semecký, CSc. Title of the diploma thesis: Neoadjuvant therapies in patients with oesophageal carcinoma and the effect of therapy on renal function The aim of this work is to compare the formulas used to estimate the glomerular filtration. The selected group of patients are patients with early oesophageal cancer who are treated with neoadjuvant therapy. This therapy consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which consists of cisplatin and fluorouracil. Cisplatin has nephrotic effects. Methodology strives to describe as accurately as possible the current condition of the patient. The patient's characteristics consists of a biochemical analysis, a anamnesis of the patients and an analysis of the renal function. The effect of comorbidities and concomitant pharmacotherapy on renal fiction is monitored. Results of this work provide a comparison of individual calculations. An individual renal anamnesis has been created for each patient, including a comparison of individual glomerular filtration estimates. The overall number of patients is affected by an unfavourable prognosis, involvement of some them in clinical trials and a rapid...
Delineating pain and fear engrams in the prefrontal cortex
Ludínová, Kristýna ; Zitko, Jan (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Analysis Candidate: Kristýna Ludínova Supervisor: PharmDr. Jan Zitko, Ph.D. External supervisors: Dr. Manfred Oswald, Prof. Dr. Rohini Kuner Title of diploma thesis: Delineating Pain and Fear Engrams in the Prefrontal Cortex Pain is a complex process associated with activation of various brain centres. According to evidence of imaging studies in humans and rodents the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) ranks amongst the brain area consistently activated during painful perception. The mPFC circuits underlies functionally-distinct processes, such as pain, emotional response, decision-making, attention amongst others. However, the precise contribution of mPFC in pain related function remains to be unknown. The aim of the study was to delineate how pain and fear are manifested at the cellular level within the regions of PFC. By employing activity dependent neuronal labelling we tested if cellular ensembles activated in pain and fear behaviours within the mPFC are distinct. We investigated a potential use of activity-dependent DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) expression in order to test for the functional role of PFC ensembles in pain and fear behaviour. Our...
Testing antioxidant properties of selected acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Kucková, Jana ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Jana Kucková Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršalová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Testing antioxidant properties of selected acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Very widespread Alzheimer's disease is typical by a complex pathology. Its causality is not clearly understood. There is increasing discussion due to the negative impact of free radicals on this disease formation. There are testing new substances that have also antioxidant properties, in addition to their classical effects. The aim of this diploma thesis is spectrophotometric testing of antioxidant properties of selected acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. It is based on DPPH test where the presence of antioxidants with antiradical activity causes the reduction of the color stable 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to a colorless molecule. The principle of the method is the measurement of decrease in absorbance (decolorization) of selected substances that are directly proportional to the antioxidant (antiradical) efficacy of the analyzed inhibitors. It focuses on twelve samples, Phenothiazine, which is the leader structure of new inhibitors synthesis, and two standards. Antioxidant activity is expressed as the effective...
Delineating pain and fear engrams in the prefrontal cortex
Ludínová, Kristýna ; Zitko, Jan (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Analysis Candidate: Kristýna Ludínova Supervisor: PharmDr. Jan Zitko, Ph.D. External supervisors: Dr. Manfred Oswald, Prof. Dr. Rohini Kuner Title of diploma thesis: Delineating Pain and Fear Engrams in the Prefrontal Cortex Pain is a complex process associated with activation of various brain centres. According to evidence of imaging studies in humans and rodents the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) ranks amongst the brain area consistently activated during painful perception. The mPFC circuits underlies functionally-distinct processes, such as pain, emotional response, decision-making, attention amongst others. However, the precise contribution of mPFC in pain related function remains to be unknown. The aim of the study was to delineate how pain and fear are manifested at the cellular level within the regions of PFC. By employing activity dependent neuronal labelling we tested if cellular ensembles activated in pain and fear behaviours within the mPFC are distinct. We investigated a potential use of activity-dependent DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) expression in order to test for the functional role of PFC ensembles in pain and fear behaviour. Our...

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1 HERINK, Jakub
1 Herink, Jaroslav
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