National Repository of Grey Literature 281 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The repair of DNA damage induced with suphur mustard and its relationship to the cytotoxicity
Jílková, Martina ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
The aim of this study was to investigate the induction and repair mechanisms of DNA damage caused by sulphur mustard in specific cell lines and their relationship to cytotoxicity of sulphur mustard. Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent of the blistering agent category, which can be misused in local conflicts, terrorist attacks and during liquidation of its storage. Sulphur mustard is an alkylating agent, which interacts with a wide range of cellular macromolecules including DNA, RNA and proteins. Sulphur mustard forms single - strand breaks, monofunctional guanine and adenine adducts, as well as interstrand cross-links involving the two guanines in interaction with DNA. This study is aimed at cross-links. We used the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE, comet assay) for their detection. It is a method of evaluation of single cells ambeded in agarose. It is used for detection of DNA single strand breaks in a single cell. In our modification of the method we determined cross-links, which make the alkaline DNA unwinding impossible. That is why we had to induce a standard number of single strand breaks in DNA by styreneoxide (at a certain concentration and exposure time) before the comet assay. We studied DNA repair mechanisms of specific DNA lesions using specific cell lines with clearly...
Current therapeutic options for the traetment of anorexia and bulimia
Kašová, Kristína ; Pourová, Jana (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
1. Abstract Author: Title: Form: Name of University: Degree: Department of: Consultant: Kristína Kašová Current therapeutic options for the treatment of anorexia and bulimia Diploma Thesis Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Pharmacy Pharmacology and Toxicology PharmDr. Jana Pourová, Ph.D. The work deals with therapy of mental anorexia and bulimia and targets to collect the information about opportunities for pharmacotherapy of these diseases which can be provided as a supportive treatment together with psychotherapeutic-psychological methods. In recent years the incidence of eating disorders has rapidly increased and there are several reasons for this growth. We focus not only on the current therapeutic options for the treatment of these diseases but we also try to point out the danger which goes hand in hand with eating disorders, health complications and raising mortality of patients with the diagnosis of mental bulimia and mental anorexia. Key words: mental anorexia, mental bulimia, psychotherapeutical methods, pharmacotherapy
Therapy of diabetes mellitus and its possible complications
Durasová, Lenka ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Tilšer, Ivan (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Mgr. Lenka Durasová Abstract Therapy of diabetes mellitus and its possible complications The aim of this thesis is to describe and explain the therapy and possible complications of diabetes mellitus. My document also includes a few interesting case reports belonging to this topic. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the pankreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Hyperglycemia and other related disturbances in the body's metabolism can lead to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especiallity the nerves and blood vessels. A diabetes epidemic is underway. At least 171 million people worldwide have diabetes. This figure is likely to be more than double by 2030. Around 3,2 million deaths every year are attributable to complications of diabetes. Diabetes has become one of the major causes of premature illness and deth in most countries, mainly through the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are two basic forms of diabetes: Type 1 - people with this type of diabetes produce very little or no insulin. People with type 1 diabetes require daily injections of insulin to survive. Type 2 - people with this...
Biological therapy of pathological disorders
Libichová, Iva ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Pourová, Jana (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Title of diploma thesis: Biological therapy of pathological disorders Author: Iva Libichová Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršálová, CSc. Email of supervisor: Abstract The aim of this thesis is to give a comprehensive overview of current options of biological therapy. Since this course of study is relatively new, biologics are described from common point of view including their manufacture. The major part is dedicated to individual categories of biologics. How biologics are obtained, what is the mechanism of action and use of certain biologics in treating diseases. Pathogenesis of diseases, in which biological therapy is currently used and an overview of the therapy of these diseases using biological therapy is described in the last section. I also mention some of the adverse effects of these biologics which have very frequent or frequent occurrence of adverse effects or of these which have a lot of adverse effects.
Testing antioxidant properties of selected acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Kucková, Jana ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Jana Kucková Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršalová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Testing antioxidant properties of selected acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Very widespread Alzheimer's disease is typical by a complex pathology. Its causality is not clearly understood. There is increasing discussion due to the negative impact of free radicals on this disease formation. There are testing new substances that have also antioxidant properties, in addition to their classical effects. The aim of this diploma thesis is spectrophotometric testing of antioxidant properties of selected acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. It is based on DPPH test where the presence of antioxidants with antiradical activity causes the reduction of the color stable 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to a colorless molecule. The principle of the method is the measurement of decrease in absorbance (decolorization) of selected substances that are directly proportional to the antioxidant (antiradical) efficacy of the analyzed inhibitors. It focuses on twelve samples, Phenothiazine, which is the leader structure of new inhibitors synthesis, and two standards. Antioxidant activity is expressed as the effective...
The effect of acetylcholinesterase reactivators on urinary bladder contraction
Rambousková, Lucia ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Candidate: Mgr. Lucia Rambousková Title of thesis: The effect of acetylcholinesterase reactivators on urinary bladder contraction Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršálová, CSc. Consultant specialist: PharmDr. Vendula Šepsová, Ph.D Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators major mechanism is attributed to their ability to reactivate phosporylated enzyme, AChE. It has been thought that oxime might have additional direct pharmacological effect, other than AChE reactivation. The oximes may exert effects by interaction with cholinergic receptors. The most of them have antiniconitic or antimuscarinic properties, thus they protect against higher concentration of acetylcholine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reactivators K 203 and K 027. A contraction study on the rat urinary bladder has been chosen to investigate effect on muscarinic and purinergic receptors. Isolated strips of urinary bladder in the organ bath were used. There were three types of stimulation - electric stimulation (EFS), muscarinic receptor agonist methacholine (MCh) and purinergic receptor agonist adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In conclusion oxime K 027 has tendency to reduce the contraction (during EFS and MCh...
Study of antileptic drug dispensation in pharmacy with enlarged sphere of activity in years 2005 - 2006
Sedláček, Vladimír ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
This thesis aims to compare consumption of particular antiepileptics (N03A) in two following years 2005 and 2006 in pharmacy with extended sphere of action to confirm the presumption of continuing increase of new antiepileptics consumption. Using the pharmacy system Paenium the consumption of particular antiepileptics was recorded as a number of drugs actually demanded by patients based on medical prescription. ATC/DDD system valid in year 2006 has been used to express the consumption. Consumption of particular antiepileptics groups was expressed as a sum of expended DDD of all active substances from each particular group of antiepileptics in years 2005 and 2006. Percentage share of particular antiepileptics groups has been calculated from the total consumption in both years. Consumptions of particular antiepileptics groups in years 2005 and 2006 have been compared. Furthermore, consumption of particular active antiepileptic substances was calculated for the years 2005 and 2006 as a sum of DDD of all medicinal product packages with content of each individual active antiepileptic substance. Since a new anti-epileptic drug pregabalin entered the Czech market in 2005, significant increase of it's consumption in first months was assumed. It was interesting to observe the influence of the new marketed drug on...
Current possibilities of asthma therapy
Košková, Jana ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Žáčková, Pavla (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of farmacology and toxicology Jana Košková Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršalová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Current possibilities of treatment of asthma The asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of respiratory ways, which affects a significant proportion of global population and its prevalence is increasing. Together with inflammation, bronchial hyperreactivity and intermittent obstruction of respiratory ways are involved in the iniciation and development of asthma. Asthma is caused not only by the genetic predisposition, but also by the environment and current lifestyle. The repeated states of breathlessness, wheeze on chest, feel of pressure on chest and cough are the typical the clinical symptoms of the clinical picture. These problems occur frequently at night and early in the morning. Classification based on seriousness of clinical status before treatment divides the asthma for intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe persistent. A new approach to the asthma resulted to the changes in pharmacotherapy. The important change was determination of drugs, which will be used to treatment of the acute attacks of asthma and preventive drugs for long-term regular use. Inhalation corticosteroids...
Current approaches in the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy
Kücük, Pinar ; Čečková, Martina (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
PINAR KUCUK: Current approaches in the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy. (Diploma thesis) ABSTRACT The management of pregestational diabetes requires tight metabolic control to reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that type I diabetes is a disorder characterized by insulin deficiency and type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance. If patient is having type II diabetes, they require higher doses of insulin in pregnancy and limited use of oral hypoglycemic agents; moreover, both type I and type II diabetes mellitus appear to have a necessity of administering different doses of insulin in each trimester. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by glucose intolerance of variable severity that begins or is first diagnosed during pregnancy and which shares the same pathophysiology and clinical signs as diabetes mellitus type 2. As well as for a diabetic pregnancy, the therapeutic management of gestational diabetes mellitus must be instituted early and must be intensive. Risk factors for the development of GDM include obesity, older age, family history, previous history of GDM or poor obstetric outcomes, ethnicity, polycystic ovary syndrome and as more recently noted, hypertension. GDM may also be caused by genetic variation that predisposes women...

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