National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The Use of Separation Methods for the Study of Selected Drugs and Pesticides in Water
Burešová, Jitka ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work is focused on the study of penetration of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. The aim was to develop and verify the optimal method for long-term monitoring of the occurrence of selected pesticides and pharmaceuticals in surface waters. Two frequently used analgesics ibuprofen and diclofenac, and carbamazepine that is used to treat epilepsy, were chosen from the group of drugs. A group of 41 pesticides were selected for monitoring too. The attention was focused on a group of urea pesticides and phenoxyacetic acids, as well as on selected pesticides falling to the group of priority substances or identified as environmental quality standards. Some of pesticides were selected because their consumption in the Czech Republic exceeds 30 tons a year. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC / MS / MS) was used for the determination of selected analytes in surface waters. Two optimized analytical method were developed. Ten analytes were determined in negative ion mode and 34 analytes in positive ion mode. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for purification and concentration of the samples. Developed methodology was validated and used for monitoring of selected compounds in samples of surface waters from the Morava River basin. Samples were collected on the rivers Morava and Svratka monthly for two years. Samples from the river Blata and stream Nivnička were collected for one year. Surface water samples were also collected from the river Litava. Four samples were taken throughout the length of the flow during one day. Smaller streams were chosen for monitoring because of the probability of occurrence of pesticides. They flow abundantly agriculturally cultivated areas. Drugs ibuprofen and diclofenac were detected in all taken samples, carbamazepine mostly. Among the most commonly occurring pesticides were bentazon, diuron, isoproturon, carbendazim, MCPA, MCPP, propiconazole, tebuconazole and 2,4-D.
Application of Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Oxidative Stress Markers and Mycotoxins
Čumová, Martina ; Večeřa, Zbyněk (referee) ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
The first topic presented in the dissertation thesis is determination of isoprostanes as markers of oxidative stress and other compounds affected by presence of oxidative stress. Isoprostanes iPF2-III, iPF2-VI, iPF2-VI, astaxanthin and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially arachidonic acid (AA) were monitored in Atlantic salmon eggs (Salmo salar). Methods for the determination of these compounds have been developed and optimized using chromatographic separation coupled to conventional or mass spectrometric detection. Freshly laid eggs, eyed embryos and non-viable eggs were used to test a general hypothesis that egg viability can be affected by susceptibility to oxidative stress, either through the specific fatty acid concentration and/or the antioxidant capacity of the eggs. Levels of isoprostanes and arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly higher in non-viable eggs than in control (eyed embryos) as well as relative abundance of PUFA. While no difference of isoprostanes was found between freshly laid and control those from the Atlantic stock except iPF2-VI which was observed under the LOQ in the control. Higher levels of PUFA and AA in comparison with the control were observed in the freshly laid eggs. However, the only statistically significant difference was observed in the amount of astaxanthin. Different levels of PUFA and astaxanthin may be related to their biochemical consumption during the development of eggs. This work evaluated potential effect on the viability of eggs Salmo salar due to the presence of oxidative stress. The monitoring of mycotoxins in food and feed was the subject of the second topic. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They are ubiquitous undesirable natural contaminants that are toxic for humans and animals. Today are known more than 500 mycotoxins. However, only few of them are regulated by the European Union. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on other mycotoxins for which statutory limits could be developed. In this study is proposed simultaneous screening allowing fast, reliable and sensitive approach, identification and quantification of 17 mycotoxins in food and feed sample. The method includes both mycotoxins regulated by the EU and selected mycotoxins required by the EFSA (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, enniatins and beauvericin). Analytes are isolated by the modified QuEChERS method. For separation and target mycotoxins detection, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC –MS/MS) was employed. The method also allows determination of ergot alkaloids (ergocornine, ergosine, ergocryptine, ergocristine and their respective epimers). The developed method was used either for monitoring mycotoxins and ergot alkaloids in feed and raw materials and barley and malt prepared from it.
Study of Transfer of Musk Compounds in Abiotic and Biotic Components of Aquatic Ecosystems
Zouhar, Libor ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Sokol, Jozef (referee) ; Večeřa, Zbyněk (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work was focused on the determination of musk compounds in various components of the environment. Synthetic musk compounds are organic substances commonly used as fragrant constituents of detergents, perfumes, cosmetics and other personal care products (PCPs). These compounds contaminate the aquatic environment through municipal wastewater from sewage treatment plants. The result is accumulation of these analytes in the environment and their occurrence in food chain. Synthetic fragrances are commonly detected also in human body; these substances generally belong among relatively new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because of their persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. The aim of this work was to optimize the methods for the determination of selected synthetic fragrances in wastewater (municipal, industrial) and in fish muscle. These analytes were determined in wastewater [the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Brno – Modřice, cosmetic manufacturing plant] and in fish Squalius cephalus that had been caught in the river Svratka. The selected analytes (14 substances) originate from the group of nitromusk, polycyclic musk and linear musk compounds. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) [for wastewater samples] and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) [for fish samples] were used for isolation of analytes from real samples. The identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). The results show that galaxolide (g.L-1) and tonalide (tenths of g.L-1) were polycyclic musk compounds which were found at the highest concentration level in influent and also in effluent samples from the WWTP Brno – Modřice. The most extended nitromusk compound was musk ketone (hundredths of g.L-1). Linear musk compounds were detected in all influent samples (g.L-1). The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musk compounds from wastewater in the WWTP varies within the following ranges: nitromusk compounds 34.4 % – 85.4 %, polycyclic musk compounds 36.7 % – 53.3 % and linear musk compounds 90.5 % – 99.9 %. On the basis of the results it can be stated that wastewater (effluent from the WWTP) is the primary source of musk compounds, especially of the polycyclic ones in the environment. It has been also shown that ultrafiltration used in a cosmetic plant is a highly efficient technology for removing nitromusk and polycyclic musk compounds from industry wastewater. The results from evaluation of the fish contamination by musk compounds show that galaxolide was the substance which reached the highest concentration levels (tens of g.kg-1 l.w.). The results corroborate ubiquitous occurrence of musk compounds in the environment and reduction of using of nitromusk compounds due to their potential toxic properties. It has been shown that the insufficiency of the purifying procedures used in the WWTP Brno – Modřice has a significant influence on the concentration level of polycyclic musk compounds (tonalide, galaxolide) in fish caught from the river Svratka.
Application of Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric Detection for the Assessment of Drug-residue Contamination of Wastewaters and Surface Waters
Lacina, Petr ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Sokol,, Jozef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work is based on the current issue of increasing concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in various components of the environment. These new environmental contaminants continuously enter the environment. The most affected environmental component is the aquatic environment. This study is focused on the development and optimization of reliable analytical method, which can determine selected drugs in the aquatic environment (waste waters and surface waters) qualitatively and quantitatively. The target compounds were selected mainly from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID): salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, clofibric acid, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, caffeine, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ketoprofen and diclofenac. NSAIDs are one of the most used drugs in Czech Republic. For the final analysis of this study was used the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection Time-of-Flight (GCxGC-TOF MS). It is a very sensitive and reliable analytical method for trace and ultra-trace analysis. Simultaneously, solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization are optimized in this work. Optimized analytical method including SPE, derivatization with MSTFA (N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide) and final analysis by GCxGC-TOF MS were applied successfully for the analysis of real samples. Samples of waste water were collected from the waste water treatment plant in Brno – Modřice and samples of surface water were collected from two river streams Svratka and Svitava in Moravian region. The range of concentrations of selected drug residues varied from one to tens of g/L in wastewater and from tens to hundreds of ng/L in surface waters. The degree of wastewater and surface waters contamination by drug residues is assessed in conclusions of the work. Simultaneously, spontaneous degradation of selected drugs in water and removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant is assessed in conclusions of the work. The developed method is usable for monitoring and environmental analysis of water ecosystems. It is usable not only for selected drugs, but even for other organic compounds with similar properties.
The Use of Liquid Chromatography for Determination of Drug Residues
Dvořáková, Petra ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Sokol, Jozef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work is based on the occurrence of drug residues in the environment. This study is focused on the development and optimization methods for determination of selected drugs in the surface water, aquatic sediment and sewage sludge from waste water treatment plant. From the group of drugs were chosen antibiotics. Antibiotics presented in the environment can cause adverse effects including toxic effects, immunity disorders and indirect bioalteration effects. Sulfonamide antibiotics, which are used in the treatment of urinary and respiratory tract infections as well as in the treatment of other infectious diseases, were chosen as a target compounds. Three optimized analytical methods for determination of sulfonamide antibiotics were developed. For the optimization of extraction were tested: solid phase extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave extraction and ultrasonic extraction. For the final analysis was used liquid chromatography with two detectors - diode array detector and mass spectrometer. These optimized methods were applied for the analysis of real samples. The surface water and sediment samples were collected from two Moravian rivers (the Svratka river and the Svitava river). Samples of sewage sludge were collected from waste water treatment plant Brno-Modřice. Fish samples from the Svratka river were also collected. It was observed that all the selected sulfonamide antibiotics are present in real sediment samples (ug.kg-1). Simultaneously presence of some target analytes in real surface water (ug.l-1) and in sewage sludge (ug.kg-1) samples has been confirmed. In samples of surface water from the Svitava river and in fish samples sulfonamide antibiotics were not detected or their concentrations were below the limit of detection.
The Study of Distribution of Halogenated Diphenylethers to Parts of Environment
Hroch, Martin ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Šucman, Emanuel (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
In recent years considerable attention is paid to problems of brominated flame retardants (BFR's – Brominated Flame retardants), which are a diverse group of organic compounds. Even in the recent past have been the most often represented group particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which have found wide use in many industrial sectors. The reason of aplication of these substances is the ability to slow down the combustion process and reduce the risk of ignition by the excessive heating of material. On the other hand, serious concerns about the use of PBDEs was added. The most serious trouble is particular their possible to release from consumer products during their normal use, toxicity and high persistence in parts of environment. Some of these contaminants are more characterized by a high degree of accumulation in biological systems. In this work by several sub-studies the issue of assessment the level of pollution of the aquatic ecosystem of selected localities of the Czech Republic just PBDEs was addressed. One of objectives was monitored the situation of breeding ponds near the village Záhlinice in Central Moravia. Here was assessed level of contamination in fish and birds as two consecutive segments of food chain. The obtained results largely confirmed the assumption that with increasing trophic level of organisms leads to bioaccumulation and thus also higher findings. For comparison, the capture of fish and birds in other localities of the CR was also implemented. In Bartošovice and Hustopeče nad Becvou levels at the buzzard and heron were detected as comparable. The cormorants of the order higher levels of PBDEs were found. Further were also evaluated levels of PBDEs detected in individuals of bioindicator kind of chub caught in two locations on the river Svratka in spring and autumn. Findings of PBDE in muscle, skin and intestines were compared. The obtained results show that between tissues and sites wasn’t significant variability respectively and the findings of controlled substances are practically comparable. With aim to determine the dependence of the concentration of PBDEs in organisms on the length of the river was conducted monitoring of Vír and Brno water reservoirs. In both locations was main monitored kind of bream, which was completed by the other species. The results of the analysis indicate a higher total concentration at the lower part of river Svratka. Differences were also the distribution of individual congeners in both sampling locations. For monitoring of terrestrial system contamination levels of PBDEs has been selected several types of plant bioindicators. These are mainly pine needles (Scots pine, Eastern white pine, Silver fir, Blue spruce) collected from different localities of the Czech Republic. Other matrices were chosen roughages (Common wheat, Naked barley, Alfalfa wheat, Red clover) and oilseeds (Rapeseed) from the Novy Jicin, where Agriculture plant school of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno. Detected values of PBDE concentrations were very low, generally ranged at the detection limits of the analytical method.
The Application of Separation Techniques Based on Gas and Liquid Chromatography with Different Types of Detectors for the Determination of Biologically Active Compounds and Selected Xenobiotics
Mravcová, Ludmila ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Chýlková,, Jaromíra (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work deals with the using and application of separation techniques for analysis of polymers degradation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thereby this work is separated to two special parts. In the first part, the degradation properties of synthetic biopolymers based on lactic acid, gylcolic acid and poly(ethyleneglycol) PLGA-PEG-PLGA and ITA-PLGA-PEG-PLGA-ITA (modified by itaconic acid) were studied. These copolymers (firstly their thermosensitive hydrogels) should be used for therapy of fractures in orthopedy (as adhesives). Therefore, the sol-gel and gel-sol phase diagrams were determinated for selected samples of copolymers. The samples forming gel at 37 C was used for other study. Polymer samples were depredated in phosphate buffer at 37°C. The degradation process of physical hydrogels was described by the decrease of molecular weight and the increase of concentration lactic acid and glycolic acid in phosphate buffer. The obtained results confirmed that the degradation of polymer modified by itaconic acid is faster process than no modified polymer and polymers with lower ratio PLGA/PEG degrade also faster than lower ration PLGA/PEG. The influence of pH it was also tested. The rate of degradation of polymers was follow pH 4,0
Problems of Drug Residues Determination in Waste Waters
Lisá, Hana ; Márová, Ivana (referee) ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
The PhD thesis deals with determination of sulfonamides and tetracyclines in waste waters. Sulphonamides and tetracyclines are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. They are biologically active compounds and block biological processes in waste water treatment plants. These substances can influence microorganisms in the environment. Sulphonamides and tetracyclines induce resistance in low concentrations. These substances penetrate into the environment from industrial production, use in households, hospitals, veterinary clinics and fish farms. Tetracyclines and sulphonamides were determined in waste water from waste water treatment plants in Brno. Optimalization of extraction of these compounds was performed by solid phase extraction. Sulphonamides and tetracyclines were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector or coupled with mass spectrometry. Optimalized method was used for determination tetracyclines and sulphonamides in waste water from waste water treatment plants in Brno in years 2007 – 2010.
Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment of the Southern Moravia Region
Lána, Radim ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Večeřa, Zbyněk (referee) ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Byla provedena studie bioakumulace POP v potravním řetězci a historických trendů hladin POP v sedimentech Brněnské přehrady. Současné úrovně kontaminantů byly stanoveny v jelci tloušti z řeky Svratky a rovněž byla posouzena hygienická kvalita ryb z rekreačního rybolovu. Současné úrovně POP v terestrickém ekosystému byly posouzeny pomocí analýz jehličí jako přirozeného indikátoru znečištění. Studium jedinců tří druhů dravých ptáků z ČR bylo zaměřeno na zhodnocení kontaminace těchto vrcholných predátorů POP. S pomocí analýz vybraných druhů ryb ze Záhlinických rybníků byl rovněž studován proces bioakumulace. Posouzení parametrů dvou moderních extrakčních technik a jejich využitelnosti pro izolaci POP z různých matric bylo námětem poslední části dizertace.
Hodnocení stavu životního prostředí: Monitoring cizorodých látek v potravních řetězcích: Pilotní studie
Vysoká škola chemicko-technologická v Praze, Praha ; Suchánek, Miloslav ; Hajšlová, Jana ; Volka, Karel
Jsou obsaženy 4 analytické studie: D.7 Zhodnocení incidence environmentálních estrogenů ve Vltavě a Labi ve vztahu k biologickým efektům na biotu - zatížení vodního ekosystému (řeky Vltavy, Labe a Tiché Orlice) persistentními chlorovanými xenobiotiky s estrogenní aktivitou, D.8 Aplikace techniky LC/MS pro sledování vlivu prioritních environmentálních kontaminantů na vybrané složky životního prostředí - popis hmotnostně spektrometrické techniky ve spojení s technikou kapalinové chromatometrie, D.9 Vzorkovací pokus s živými biomarkery - testování možnosti využití krve živé zvěře pro účely biomonitoringu, D.10 Hodnocení zátěže ekosystému estery ftalové kyseliny v blízkosti bodového zdroje - validace analytického postupu pro stanovení esterů ftalové kyseliny v tereristické vegetaci využívající k extrakci metodu SFE, aplikace metody SPME pro analýzu vzorků vod, validace metody pro stanovení ftalátů v půdě, kalech sedimentech využívající metodu ASE, vyšetření složek ekosystému na obsah jednotlivých esterů ftalové kyseliny v okolí potenciálního zdroje znečištění, zhodnocení nálezů ftalátů.

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