National Repository of Grey Literature 3 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Public support for research and development provided an indirect way in terms of SMEs with a focus on information assurance
Filipová, Vladimíra ; Drozen, František (advisor) ; Valder, Antonín (referee) ; Nedělník, Jan (referee)
Innovation is a critical factor of the economical development as it is the key source of a competitive advantage and brings an addend value of a concerete company (Zhang, 2O13); Technological innovation could be defined as an endogenous factor responding to economic challenges (McKenzie, 2OO8). Research and development provides innovations, whereas the production of research and development brings externalities. Externalities reduce the private return on investment as such, therefore research and development is an object of public support. Public support can be provided ether by direct or indirect form that includes primarily tax incentives. Small and medium-size enterprises play a key role in the innovation process, however they dispose limited resources for investments to research and development and also for administrative activities connected to tax incentive applications. Thus small and medium-size enterprises are more sensitive to associated administrative tasks. The objective of the thesis was set as follows: to contribute to the existing knowledge in the application of tax incentives and desing an appropriate tool for managerial support of tax incentives reporting in small and medium-size enterprises. This objective has been divided into the following sub-objectives: (1) identify issues related to the application of tax incentives for research and development in terms of small and medium-size enterprises and to compare them with reference research, carried out by Chittenden & Derregia (2O1O); (2) design a system to improve reporting of tax incentives in small and medium-size enterprises. A reference framework was provided to address the objective, the key findings are as follows: precise recognition of research and development activities and associated costs are crucial for an effective implementation of tax incentives (Billings et al., 2OO1); cost allocation in research and development activities is rather a complicated issue (Švejda et al., 2OO7, Godfrey & Hamilton, 2OO5), therefore a comprehensive reporting system shall be provided (Chittenden & Derregia, 2O1O) and these reporting systems should include accounting elements Bhiman (2OO6) and enable project division into phases (Jorgensen 2O1O). In accordance with the recommendation of Chittenden & Derregia (2O1O), Bourgeois and Eisenhardt (1988), Koners and Goffin (2OO7), Workman (1993) Singleton and Straits (2OO5), Morandi (2O11), Yin (2OO3) qualitative research based on structured questionnaires was chosen for exploring the first objective and case study for the second objective. The key findings of qualitative research based on structured questionnaires are: only top management and accountants were involved in the administration of tax incetives. Middle management and researchers were omitted, wherease in reporting of grant projects (realized with the direct support), they were fully involved. The case study research approved that a formalized system of management and reporting of research and development activities supports identification of a research project. Representative of a case company confirm that the formalized system of management and reporting supports decision making process and innovation performance, that corresponds to Bossink (2OO2). The main limitation of the research is the chosen method. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a selected sample of small and medium-size enterprises case study was carried out in a concrere company. The conclusions therefore can not be generalized. Further research can provide a more extensive survey that can be statistically generalize. Other possibity is the evaluation of a social impact as Galal & Wiener (2OO3) also suggest or description of differences in reporting research and development project realized without public support as Lokshin & Mohnen (2O12) recommend.
Effect of Exchange Rate Hedging on the Performance of Collective Investment Fund
Pfeiferová, Daniela ; Valder, Antonín (advisor) ; Jiří, Jiří (referee)
Collective investment is among the fastest growing areas of investment in financial markets. Its importance within each economy is influenced by the level of development of the capital market. The beginnings of collective investment in the Czech Republic are associated with the coupon privatization in the 90s of the last century. The basic advantages of this method of investing can include risk diversification, professional portfolio management, liquidity of the investment, regulation and tax benefits. The theoretical part describes the historical development of this business in the financial market. The systematization of collective investment was proposed according to the subject of investing, the method of returns distribution to investors, the terms of investment strategy, the investor's investment profile and according to the existing legislation. Transparent classification schemes were created for particular perspectives. The analytical part of the thesis analyzes the processes used to measure the performance of mutual funds, characterization of the risks associated with collective investment and the possible ways to hedge the foreign currency exchange rate risk. The outputs of the thesis respond to two hypotheses: H1: The monthly cost to hedge the foreign exchange risk affects the monthly performance of the mutual fund on the basis of the correlation in time series. H2: Is the information on the costs of exchange rate hedging required for quality decisionmaking for a small investor (consumer).
Proposal of Procedures for the Transformation of Accounting Data to the Tax Base in Accordance with the CCCTB
Kuchařová, Ivana ; Valder, Antonín (advisor) ; Jan, Jan (referee)
Globalisation as well as on-going integration make the authorities accelerate their harmonisation and approximation efforts not only in the field of accounting and book-keeping -- to secure harmonised interpreting of books -- but also in respect of international business entities' corporate tax. My dissertation describes the efforts of the European Commission towards full harmonisation of the process of determining the corporate tax base in respect of business entities formed as supranational groups of businesses registered in various EU member states or in combination of members from the EU and the third countries. The pending harmonisation should prevent the said entities from aggressive tax "optimisation" in the course of which they transfer their tax base to countries with the lowest income tax and abuse gaps and incomprehensiveness of tax regulation in individual EU member states. Such practice may, in some cases, result in double non-taxation thus further reducing the income of EU member states' already suffering public budgets. The EU has recognized the need to implement measures to stop this practice and will take action. One of the measures that should lead to an improvement in tax collection is the fastest introduction of a common consolidated tax base for corporate income (Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base). The genesis, structure and characterization of CCCTB has become a crucial part of the theoretical background research. Other issues that arise in connection with the introduction of the common consolidated tax base and which are addressed in this work are as follows - what similarities and differences are there between the European and national rules on accounting and taxes, which procedures will be used for a transformation of the initial accounting data presented in accordance with the national legislation to the European tax base and what impact will have these transformation processes on the final amount of the tax base.

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