National Repository of Grey Literature 292 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Vaccinations before travelling abroad
Sejkorová, Monika ; Rathouská, Jana (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Bc. Monika Sejkorová Vaccinations before travelling abroad Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Specialist in laboratory methods Background: The thesis consists of theoretical summary of information which characterizes travel vaccination. Further, it consists of a questionnaire study, whose goal was to determine the volume of people's knowledge about travel vaccination, their attitude and personal experience with vaccination. Next goal was to statistically evaluate influence of age, level of education and work in healthcare industry on individually chosen questions. Methods: Questionnaire study was performed from September 2020 to January 2021 and consisted of 24 questions. The questionnaire was directed to male and female respondents of all age groups from Czech Republic (620 respondents). Statistical outputs were done by IBM SPSS Statistics software. Results: Most of the respondents (95 %) were aware of travel vaccination. Most often they found out about it from media (36 %), the source of more detailed information was obtained from vaccination and travel healthcare center (35 %). 30 % of respondents chose to let themselves vaccinate. The most frequent reason for no vaccination was that the respondents did not travel to a high-risk country (86 %). Three respondents...
Optimization of the method for sensitivity evaluation of biofilm-forming staphylococci against candidate antimicrobial compounds
Diepoltová, Adéla ; Konečná, Klára (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Study program: Healthcare Bioanalytics Author: Bc. Adéla Diepoltová Supervisor: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. Title of thesis: Optimization of the method for sensitivity evaluation of biofilm- forming staphylococci against candidate antimicrobial compounds Background: The aim of this thesis was to optimize approach for in vitro formation of staphylococcal biofilms on the pegs and on the wells of the 96-well panel as an analogous approach to commercially available Calgary Biofilm Device system. The aim of the Experiment 1 was to evaluate incubation conditions (such as impact of a growth medium, incubation mode, optical density of the starting bacterial inoculum and type of surface) leading to maximal biofilm formation of two biofilm producer strains with unknown biofilm phenotype and one staphylococcal strain known as strong biofilm producer. The most advisable conditions were used in incubation process of Experiment 2. This work should propose the approach leading to in vitro formation of the most voluminous staphylococcal biofilms exploitable for candidate drug antimicrobial activity testing. Methods: Spectrophotometric measurement of the crystal violet colour extracted from wells with fixed and stained Staphylococci to evaluate the ability to...
Phylogenetic diversity of culturable prokaryotes from hypersaline environments.
Straková, Dáša ; Jílek, Petr (advisor) ; Konečná, Klára (referee)
Candidate: Dáša Straková Title of diploma thesis: Phylogenetic diversity of culturable prokaryotes from hypersaline environments. Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Biological and Medical Sciences University of Sevilla, Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Microbiology and Parasitology Study program: Pharmacy Hypersaline environments are widely distributed habitats characterized by elevated concentrations of salts, mainly represented by aquatic systems and hypersaline soils. Their study has enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of halophilic microorganisms during the last decades, which are microorganisms that require a high concentration of salts in order to be capable of life and growth. The aim of this work was to continue the initial characterization of halophilic Archaea and Bacteria, previously isolated by Ana Durán-Viseras in 2016 from several water samples from Isla Cristina and Isla Bacuta solar salterns (Huelva, Spain) and from a hypersaline soil located in Odiel Saltmarshes (Huelva, Spain), and to carry out a biodiversity study of these samples. Ana Durán-Viseras started this project and I continued with it during my stay in Sevilla. As a part of the characterization, we sequenced the partial 16S rRNA gene of the isolated strains. For those that...
In vitro screening of potential antimycobacterial compounds against fast growing strains of Mycobacterium genus II
Pchálková, Tereza ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist on Laboratory Methods Author: Bc. Tereza Pchálková Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro screening of potential antimycobacterial compounds active against fast growing strains of Mycobacterium genus II Key words: Mycobacteria, Tuberculosis, Antituberculotics, Microdilution broth method, Minimum inhibition concentration Background: The aim of this diploma thesis has been screening of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of novel compounds against fast growing strains of the genus Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium aurum). Another aim has been predicting the structure-activity relationships for tested compounds. Methods: The technique used for activity determination was microdilution broth method. The value of minimum inhibition concentration for each compound was determined. The evaluation was performed visually and spectrophotometrically using the Alamar blue indicator. Results: A total of 79 compounds were tested. 22 tested compounds showed significant activity against mycobacteria. The substances were sorted according to the similarity in chemical structure into 10 groups. From a chemical point of view, these...
Sexual dimorphism of rat gut microbiota composition and intestinal immunity
Kalousová, Pavla ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Pavla Kalousová Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title: Sexual dimorphism of rat gut microbiota composition and intestinal immunity Background and Aim: Many factors can influence the composition of gut microbiota and the immune system. It is well-known that one of those factors is sex. This sexual dimorphism can lead to a specifically adjusted treatment of diseases for different gender and nutritional interventions. This study focuses on analysing sexual differences in gut microbiota and intestinal immunity in adult rats. Methods: Caecal content from 12-week-old female and male Wistar rats were collected and analysed by DNA-sequencing technique to characterize microbiota composition. ELISA test was performed to quantify the concentration of IgA in faeces and gut wash. Flow cytometry determined the concentration of IgA-coating bacteria in faecal samples. Results: Metagenomic analysis revealed that female gender presents 1 phylum, 4 families, 13 genera, and 13 species which are not present in male rats. Only one male-specific colonization was observed at the species level. Quantitative analysis showed a higher proportion of Firmicutes phylum in males which was associated with...
Microbiological Aspects of Infectious Diseases Therapy
Paterová, Pavla ; Buchta, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kolář, Milan (referee) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Background: The method of serum bactericidal assay represents an alternative possibility of optimization of anti-infectious therapy and administration of antibiotics. It mirrors the real activity of one or more administered antibiotics in the complex system of the antibacterial effect of patient's serum. The paper aimed to confirm non-inferiority of bactericidal testing using the broth dilution method according to CLSI M21-A Guidelines (time to results 48, 72 hours) in comparison with modified methods of testing on the basis of turbidimetry (time to result 6, 8, 24 hours) and resazurin color (time to results 8, 24 hours). Methods: Four antibiotics were tested: gentamicin, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem with 30 Escherichia coli strains isolated from blood cultures of 29 pacients hospitalised in different wards, University Hospital in Hradec Kralove. Human blood sera (n = 76) from ten hematological patients (4th Department of Clinical Medicine, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove) were tested to establish bactericidal titer. Patients' blood was withdrawn prior to and in the course of the first and third day of antibiotic therapy of febrile neutropenia. Testing employed the reference strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Results: A comparison with the standard CSLI showed that the...
In vitro susceptibility of potentially pathogenic fungi isolated in the University Hospital Hradec Králové to antifungal drugs.
Hejkrlíková, Eva ; Jílek, Petr (advisor) ; Janďourek, Ondřej (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Author: Eva Hejkrlíková Supervisor: PharmDr. Petr Jílek, CSc. Supervisor specialist: doc. RNDr. Vladimír Buchta, CSc. Title of master's thesis: In vitro susceptibility of potentially pathogenic fungi isolated in the University Hospital Hradec Králové to antifungal drugs Subtitle: Blood cultures tested from 2008 to 2018 Background: The aim of the work was to describe and evaluate epidemiological situation of fungemia in the University Hospital Hradec Králové (FNHK) from 2008 to 2018, focusing on in vitro susceptibility of blood isolates to antifungals. Methods: Required data were obtained from the laboratory information system of the De- partment of Clinical Microbiology FNHK and processed using Microsoft Excel program. Results: From January 2008 to December 2018, fungemia was identified in 231 patients with overall incidence of 0.51 cases per 1000 admissions. Candida albicans accounted for most cases (52.8 %) followed by C. glabrata (14.7 %), C. tropicalis (8.2 %) and C. parapsilosis (6.9 %). C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis susceptibility to echinocandins, as determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration, was 100 %, in 2 cases C. glabrata was resistant to anidulafungin...
Factors accompanying vulvovaginal discomfort
Zelená, Markéta ; Jílek, Petr (advisor) ; Leško, Daniel (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Markéta Novotná Supervisor of master thesis: PharmDr. Petr Jílek, CSc. Title: Factors accompanying vulvovaginal discomfort BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal discomfort (VVD) is very frequently observed disease that significantly decreases the quality of life. Most women have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. In spite the fact that this issue is still being studied, so far, we don't know the reason for recurrence. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS: The first goal of this thesis is to characterize a group of patients with recurrent vulvovaginal discomfort (RVVD) and factors accompanying RVVD. Another goal is to compare data collected in the survey with data and analysis from other studies related to this topic in the long term. METHODS: The data for this study were gained in survey that took place at specialized department for vulvovaginal discomfort at the local hospital. RESULTS: A total of 75,0 % questioned had a diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) and 42,6 % of bacterial vaginosis (BV). From respondents which were pregnant at last once, a total of 20,8 % specified they had the most severe VVD during the 7th to 9th months of pregnancy which confirms a previous study. We also...
Continuous results in control of bezoar goat parasitostatus bred in game enclosure Vřísek
Kruber, Petra ; Lamka, Jiří (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Petra Niklová Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Jiří Lamka, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Continuous results in control of bezoar goat parasitostatus bred in game enclosure Vřísek In game enclosure Vřísek a bezoar goat belongs to a breeding rarity. It is the most bred herd of goats on our hemisphere, this shows in the expert quality of care that they receive. The most emphasis is put on the healing of parasites, mostly caused by lungworms Muellerius capillaris. The number of parasites invading the goats is also caused by breeding them together with moufflons, who is a source of parasitosis, and also causes parasitological pressure on the goat. Muelleriosis is being monitored for a long time by rectally removed samples of excrements which are laparoscopically processed; in this thesis, there is a newly dedicated attention to other parasitoses. Antiparasitic treatment is based on the subcutaneous injection of ivermectin with dosage 0.6mg/kg of live weight 3 times a year, thanks to this deworming scheme the effect of the treatment is sufficient.
The possibility of determination of HIV antibodies avidity for early infection detection
Diničová, Michaela ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist on Laboratory Methods Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: The possibility of determination of HIV antibodies avidity for early infection detection The determination of early HIV infection in the Czech Republic is based on a combination of results of laboratory examination, clinical examination, and information from an epidemiological report. The identification of patient in the acute phase of the disease allows to search for targeted contact to reduce further spread of HIV, as patients in the early phase of the disease are the riskiest for transmission of infection. One of the laboratory markers of the acute phase of infection is low avidity of antibodies, which expresses the strength of bonds between antigen and antibody. The determination of avidity is based on fact that avidity in recent infections is low because antibodies do not bind tightly enough to antigen and avidity increases when the immune response matures. Quantitatively, it is expressed by the avidity index, which determines what part of the antibodies (%) will remain bound in complex with the antigen after incubation with chaotropic agent, in our case with guanidine...

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