National Repository of Grey Literature 45 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The Maastricht fiscal criteria, their formation and problems with meeting the criteria in the EU
Mihalec, Lukáš ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Klazar, Stanislav (referee)
This work deals with the Maastricht criteria and analyses the compliance with its fiscal rules in the period form 1995 till 2015 on the given sample of countries: Slovakia, Belgium, Germany and Greece. The assessment of compliance with fiscal Maastricht criteria in the case of given countries forms the main goal of this work. The thesis is divided into tree chapters. The first chapter introduces basis of the theory of the optimal currency area. Following this theory, the second chapter focuses on the Maastricht criteria as such. The third chapter includes the analysis of compliance with fiscal Maastricht criteria in the case of give countries
National debt of Czech Republic
Chung, Su Won ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Klazar, Stanislav (referee)
The dissertation analyzes national debt of Czech Republic between the years 1996 to 2015 as well as comparing it to other member states of European Union with a brief suggestion of how to lower the debt. Results are based on documents from Ministry of Finance of Czech Republic.
The development and the sustainability of the external public debt of the European Union member states
Střecha, Michal ; Karpová, Eva (advisor) ; Izák, Vratislav (referee) ; Šaroch, Stanislav (referee) ; Křelinová, Jana (referee)
The public debt is considered as an important indicator of the macroeconomic and financial stability of the domestic economy. It reflects a quality of the fiscal policy and the sustainability of the public finances. The public debt has been recently paid more attention in the context of the last financial and debt crisis initiated in 2008. A considerable amount of literature has been published on the topic of interconnections between budget balances and macroeconomic environment. However, the budget deficit is only a consequence of higher public expenditures than public revenues. Therefore, the debt is only an alternative source of financing the budget deficit. One of the main ideas of the doctoral thesis is that the macroeconomic effects of the fiscal policy represented by the budget deficits and effects of the public debt should differ. While activities of the fiscal policy effect the real economic indicators such as the GDP, an increase in the public debt effects the monetary indicators such as the exchange rate, the market interest rate and the money supply. The main object of the doctoral thesis is the analysis of the public debt development including the changes in the public debt structure broken down by debt instruments, currency, maturity and the holder profile. Besides, other main object is to analyse the macroeconomic effects of various forms of a public debt; firstly the attention is paid to different monetary effects of the domestic and the external public debt. The doctoral thesis suggests a new point of view to the analysis of the macroeconomic effects and sustainability of a public debt. The findings can be used in the decision making process; If a public deficit is supposed to be domestic debt or external debt financed. Apart from the effects of the changes in the outstanding debt, the effects of the changes in the public debt structure are examined.
Health care expenditures- future prospects and current situation
Škrobák, Martin ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Klazar, Stanislav (referee)
Diploma thesis "Health care expenditures- future prospects and current situation" is focused on three areas linked to health care expenditures in EU and USA. First area, health expenditures financing, is analyzed in first chapter of the thesis. In the chapter, the development of modern health systems from its beginnings to 2014 is described. Second chapter is based on statistical hypothesis testing- paired two-sample t-tests. Firstly, share of health expenditures on GDP in 2000 and 2014 is tested. Secondly, share of public financing on health expenditures in 2000 and 2014 in tested. Third chapter explores influence of demography factors on health care expenditures and tests structure of health care expenditures in 2004 and 2013.
Analysis of expenses on social security
Jakubcová, Alžběta ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Klazar, Stanislav (referee)
This diploma thesis analyzes the social security system in the Czech Republic. From 1995 to 2014 are gradually being analyzed spending on these benefits stemming from the state budget. Besides the analysis itself is partial goal to familiarize readers with the structure and construction of the social security system in the Czech Republic. In the thesis there is also made a comparison with selected countries based on at-poverty risk rate. This indicator is compared before and after the payment of social benefits in those states. At the end of the thesis there is created a regression model to predict spending on unemployment benefits untill year 2018.
Taxation in the context of the European common single market
Bušovská, Monika ; Vančurová, Alena (advisor) ; Izák, Vratislav (referee) ; Jareš, Martin (referee)
Formation of a common single market without distortions is one of the main priorities during the integration process of the European Union. For this purpose it is necessary to coordinate activities of all the Members throughout the entire Community ant it should lead to European integration and convergence. The main aim of this work is to verify European formation of the common single market throughout European tax policy in other words, through the convergence of the tax burden. Secondary aim is focused on the question of what impact do convergence of tax mixes and tax competition have on the convergence of the taxation in the EU. For this purposes data from the years of 1965 - 2011 in combination with methods of Beta Convergence, Sigma Convergence and panel regression analysis with fixed effects are used. Results confirm the tax systems convergence and its speed not only in the area of total tax burden but also in tax mixes, implicit tax rates and some statutory tax rates. Panel regression analysis with fixed effects subsequently confirmed the positive impact of the convergence of nearly all tax mixes parts and tax competiton on the total tax burden convergence. The highest impact on the tax convergence was verified at the tax competition and property taxes. All models accomplish diagnostic tests and are econometrically robust. It was confirmed the European Union has been fulfilled its primary aim through the tax policy and under established assumptions the highest impact on tax convergence have tax competition and property taxes.
Financing of fiscal deficits in the Eurozone
Hrušková, Karolína ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Klazar, Stanislav (referee)
This diploma thesis focuses on fiscal deficits in the Eurozone and possible consequences of their existence. The current state of public finances caused by insufficient fiscal responsibility of member states is discussed in the context of the debt and finance crisis, and related actions of the European Central Bank. The economic stability of the Eurozone is assessed in accordance with the theory of optimal currency areas. Using a monetary approach, the thesis presents circumstances that allow for a rise in inflationary pressures, also as a possible consequence of a debt monetization. The possible development of the indebtedness in the Eurozone and the critical points of public finance sustainability are discussed in the final part.
Causes of US budget deficit growth
Davtyan, Emil ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Blažek, Petr (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to analyze causes of United States budget deficits growth. In the first part, the thesis deals with the theory of public finance and fiscal policy including state budget and its balance. The thesis then focuses on the specific situation in the United Sates, its historical development of fiscal policies, development of federal debt, United States federal budget process, and also list of current main issues that represents main cause behind larger United States budget deficits. At the end, based on Congressional Budget Office data, is the indication of further development of federal debt including discussion over sustainability of the current development. In conclusion, the thesis also tries to find out whether the twin deficits hypothesis is valid for United States based on econometric analysis.
Tax reform trends in EU countries (comparison of new and old EU member states)
Kadavá, Jana ; Izák, Vratislav (advisor) ; Klazar, Stanislav (referee)
This thesis is focusing on the major trends in the tax reform in the European Union. The direction of development from direct to indirect taxes is analyzed and it attempts to find some consistent trends in taxation between selected countries within groups of new and old member states of the European Union in 1995 - 2011. Firstly the text gives the reader an introduction to tax theory and the optimal design of tax system is presented. Thesis also focuses on the issue of tax policy in the European Union. It describes the main tax policy challenges and possible design of efficiency-enhancing tax reforms. The global macroeconomic model QUEST III is being introduced. This model is widely used by international institutions for the quantitative evaluation of the potential impacts of tax policies. Furthermore, the development and structure of the tax mix is analyzed as well as the overall tax burden and labour taxation in new and old member states of the European Union. In conclusion there is commentary to stated hypothesis that in recent years there has been increasing emphasis on indirect taxes, while the direct taxes were being reduced.
An Effective System of Remuneration In the Public Sector
Picka, Jakub ; Kubátová, Květa (advisor) ; Izák, Vratislav (referee) ; Malý, Ivan (referee)
Expenditures on the salaries of public sector employees constitute a very important component of public expenditures, currently around CZK 200 billion annually in the Czech Republic. Adjusting the remuneration of employees in public administration (sector) is therefore an important option for increasing the efficiency of use of public funds. The assessment of the current system of public sector employee remuneration and a proposal for some specific changes to be made to it is the focus of this dissertation. The primary aim of my dissertation is to analyze the system of remuneration of employees of public and private sectors, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Within the primary target there is also a decomposition analysis, which indicates whether the employees are discriminated against in any of the sectors. The secondary objective is to make recommendations for the system of remunerating public sector employees of the in order to increase its efficiency in terms of public spending while maintaining its incentive function. The work is divided into five chapters. The first chapter, entitled "Theoretical Foundations," provides an overview of the relevant literature, the fundamental basis in economic theory, and issues of the Mincer wage equation, which is then later used as the basis for regression and decomposition analyses, and mainly describes in detail the decomposition method that is used to explain the difference in the salary level in the private and the public sector. These decomposition methods represent, together with quantile regression, the main tool used to meet the objectives of this work. The second chapter, entitled "The Remuneration of Public Sector Employees," describes the structure of the remuneration of employees of the public sector. The data shows that the current system produces results in the form of salaries that do not correspond to the market. The third chapter, called "Regression Model," builds on the analysis performed on data from QSAE, which was discussed in the second part of the previous chapter, and its purpose is to prepare the documents for verification and deepen their conclusions. The fourth chapter, called "Regression and Decomposition Analysis," is based on the regression model assembled in the previous chapter, and describes the results of the regression decomposition analysis performed on the described sample data. This chapter verifies the hypotheses set out in the introduction and answers research questions. The fifth and final chapter, entitled "Interpretation of the Results and Recommendations," focuses on the interpretation of the results, the proposed regulation of remuneration, and recommendations for further research. The main finding of this work is that the system of remuneration of public sector workers is set so that, while the overall average brings quite comparable results in terms of the salary as the entire labor market, it is not throughout the distribution. The performed regression analysis showed that both the public and private sectors evaluate the same things differently (different values of the regression coefficients of variables), and both at the average and along the entire distribution. We can say that the mechanism of the remuneration of employees of the public sector is different from that of the market. This fact is confirmed by the significantly higher coefficient of determination of the regression model of the public sector. Regarding possible discrimination in wages, the analysis showed that employees in the public sector may in contrary to the preposition of positive discrimination be positively discriminated against only up to approximately fifteenth percentile. From fifteenth percentile they are discriminated against negatively. This was confirmed by the decomposition analysis performed on the average salaries, which indicates that public sector employees are, at this level, negatively discriminated against (if the public sector employees have the same regression coefficients as private sector employees, their earnings increase). Finally, this conclusion is confirmed by the dummy variable, which represents belonging to the private sector when the value of its corresponding regression coefficients, in quantile regression analysis along the distribution, evolves from negative to positive and is significantly increasing. The thesis also shows how the system of remunerating public sector employees can be adjusted to reward employees in a way that is comparable with the market.

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