National Repository of Grey Literature 87 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Smoking and cancer
Slaatta, Mari ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
Tobacco is the most common exogenous cause of human cancers, being responsible for 90 % of human lung cancers. Cigarette smoking causes, worldwide , more than 4 million deaths annually, mostly from cardiovascular disease, various types of cancers, and chronic respiratory problems. It is expected that there will be more than 8 million tobaccorelated deaths yearly by 2020, the major increase occurring in the developing countries. It has been estimated that of the people alive today, approximately 500 million will die from tobacco-related illnesses. Smoking is probably the most preventable cause of human death. It reduces overall survival and the impact is dose dependent. Unfortunately the prevalence of smoking is increasing in young people, particularly women. (Robbins, Basic Pathology, 2006) When people think of cancers caused by smoking, the first one that comes to mind is always lung cancer. Most cases of lung cancer death, close to 90% in men, and 80% in women are caused by cigarette smoking. There are several other forms of cancer attributed to smoking as well, and they include cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, bladder, stomach, cervix, kidney and pancreas, and acute myeloid leukemia. (about.com-cancer statistics, smoking and cancer in U.S , 2005). In this thesis I will try to put my...
Prevention of Burn Injuries in Children
Hubová, Martina ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
The goal of this work was to outline the problems of burn injuries and to present the possible way of their prevention in children. I participated in this project while I was on learning program in Italy, where it already exists for couple of months. Here is a detailed description of the program together with the czech version of the material. Burns belong to one of the most serious injuries. It is very big risk of life-treat especially in children. Their body is more senzitive for any changes, their skin is more delicate and vulnerable for high temperature, quite small extent of burns can lead to developing of shock and subsequently to death. Prevention is always better then care. We can realize it in different ways.We can manage to reduce the risk of burn injuries by technical precautions, legislation changes or thanks to the education. This work is focused in education of children. The prevention program has the comics form, which is easily understandable, explanatory and mainly entertainig method. Through the illustrated stories and comics characters we would like to obtain childrens interest and try to give them sufficient imagination and knowledge, useful in risk situations. The comics should be distributed to schools, it should serve for educating, it should be in pediatric ambulances and available...
Hormonal dependent cancers in females. Epidemiological characteristics, trends and prevention possibilities
Grislingas, Anne-Marthe ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
I chose the theme of my diploma thesis for two reasons. One being my newly found interest in epidemiology and evidence based medicine, the other being my commitment to the treatment and prevention of diseases primarily affecting women. My enthusiasm for evidence based medicine and epidemiology has steadily grown over the past years. As I'm approaching the end of medical school, friends and family apparently see it as their right to question the doctor-to-be about anything from local syphilis outbreaks to homeopathic lice repellent remedies. Initially not able to give satisfactory answers, I was forced to orient myself in a field I previously had not paid much attention to. To my surprise, as I familiarized myself with the basics of epidemiological terminology and principles of proper trial conduction, I got increasingly interested in the topic. I could suddenly see examples of media's manipulation with statistics that I had not been able to spot before. I now understood how drug trials could be biased by improper randomization, something I normally wouldn't have given a second thought. It changed my view on many elements of medicine and its supporting sciences. It made me more aware of how easy it is to be flawed. With this in mind, I delved into the vast amount of material to be found on my chosen topic,...
Avian influenza - lasting threat
Stejskalová, Veronika ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
Her thesis topic of bird flu, I chose to the basis of their interest in travel medicine. This year I wanted visit Southeast Asia, so I started socking information about the situation that exists in this area since 1997, when it began to threaten the bird flu pandemic. Coincidentally, the during this spring came a new threat, the danger of swine influenza, later renamed the Mexican or "new" flu. These events reinforce my belief in how it is today, when the world is much better connected than in the past, important think of the danger of a pandemic. Nowadays, when improves and accelerates air transport, should be the same rate and improve the health situation in all parts of the world. In any State must function properly pandemic plan and the country should not conceal information about the already established facts, but rather threat from the beginning to cooperate and exchange information.
The History and Presence of HIV/AIDS in the Context of the Current Situation
Overbo, Erlend ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
HIV infection in humans is considered pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is the most common cause of death worldwide, in the age group from 18 to 45 years. In this thesis, I will try to clarify the problems and possible solutions and outcomes of the fight against the HIV pandemic. I will specifically go into the origin of the epidemic, how it was introduced to the western world, the current worldwide situation, and a comparison between Scandinavian countries and neighboring countries, such as Russia, where the epidemic is escalating. I will also briefly explain the facts around the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and finally; the next step in fighting the virus and its global complications.
Epidemiological research methods in cardiovascular diseases
Špecián, Miroslav ; Auzký, Ondřej (advisor) ; Čelko, Alexander (referee)
This bachelor paper focuses on the epidemiological methods in the research of cardiovascular diseases. Using 3 cardiovascular diagnosis (acute myocardial infarction, heart arrest and atherosclerosis) as a background, it illustrates individual research designs (types of studies), namely: case report, case series, case-control study, cross-sectional study, cohort study, randomized (controlled) trial and systematic review/metaanalysis. Each of these designs is illustrated by the specific example of a previously performed study. The paper also observes the features distinguishing epidemiological and clinical approaches to medicine and discusses the relation between epidemiology and evidence base medicine (EBM).
Breast cancer epidemiology in my country. Comparison of epidemiological similarities and differences with Czech Republic
Lipman, Ilya ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
In this paper I have examined the differences between the Czech Republic and Israel in the occurrence of breast cancer in women. I have compared the two countries health systems and general socio-economic situation. I have also examined the different risk factors common for the two countries and the prevention efforts. The comparison shows that although seemingly the general health indicators in Israel are better than those of the Czech Republic, the incidence of breast cancer in women is still significantly higher in Israel. I will show that breast cancer is apparently a civilization disease and is rising in all the western, developed countries together with the improvement of economy and health care. As research shows the major risk factor for breast cancer is hormonal dysbalance caused by higher exposure to estrogens. This higher exposure is connected with the modernization process and the changing life style of women in western countries. Thus it is possible to say that living in a modern society in the western countries carries a higher risk for women to develop breast cancer. Although it is also clear that breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and there are certainly factors that we do not know yet that influence the incidence worldwide. Both countries are making a considerable effort mainly in...
Mexican Influenza - is it real threat of pandemia?
Tomková, Eva ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
Pandemic influenza is global spreading of new influenza virus. Population is not immune from this kind of virus yet. Is possible, that this new species is mutated influenza virus, or that is originated from recombination of human and animal viruses. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) is first pandemic influenza in 21. century. It has started as an epidemic influenza of new virus A (H1N1) from swine origin, in North America. Virus has been world-wide spreading during these several months and at the moment many steps of pandemic reduction are being accepted. "Swine influenza" - is acute viral disease of respiratory tract of swine, caused by influenza virus A. This swine infection is slight, mortality is low. Very rarely, the virus can be transferred also to human. In spite of the fact, that World Health Organization (WHO) declared 6th pandemic degree on 11. 6. 2009 - that was caused by new influenza virus A (H1N1) of swine origin - it is necessary to follow prevention steps of seasonal influenza and get immunized repeatedly. Declaration of pandemic was not based on disease's seriousness caused by influenza virus, but on incidence of new cases, world-wide reported. Pandemic occurs currently only in a slight form.
Sexually transmitted diseases. Comparison between Portugal and Czech Republic
Costa, Joana Isabel Maia Azevedo ; Čelko, Alexander (advisor)
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) constitute a worldwide problem as they are associated with great morbidity and mortality. The most common diseases are Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, HIV, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is higher in Portugal than in Czech Republic, being the former one of the poorest controlled countries in Europe, and the latter, one of the best rates in the European Union. Many factors contribute to the big difference between the two countries, being the most important prevention and control. The poor notification by the medical staff, the still not enough effort done by education, prevention and awareness, and information, and their erroneous association with marginal groups, makes Portugal stand in the first rank of countries in Europe. On the other hand, in the Czech Republic, sexual education is more effective and more appropriate, and the tolerance towards sexual relationships is more accepted by communities. People are more aware of the problem and take measures to fight against it, and medical staff is also more preoccupied and attentive to this type of diseases, therefore effective in their notification. Many preventive measures should be adopted to counteract the incidence of these diseases and they include the reduction in STI associated...

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1 Čelko, Alexander Martin
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