
Yarkovsky and YORP Effects in Dynamics of Small Bodies of the Solar System
Žižka, Jindřich ; Vokrouhlický, David (advisor) ; Čapek, David (referee) ; Neslušan, Luboš (referee)
In this thesis, we study the influence of nongravitational perturbations induced by the Yarkovsky/YORP effect and solar radiation pressure (SRP) on the orbital evolution of selected asteroids, asteroid families and pairs. These perturbations are of great importance if one wants to perform precise and longterm propagation of metersized and kilometersized bodies. Although they have found many applications in the Solar System, here, we particularly investigated how they influence the orbit of nearEarth asteroid (99942) Apophis and what is their role in the age determination of asteroid families and pairs. Our numerical simulations showed that the perturbations of Apophis' orbit caused by the SRP are orders of magnitude smaller than those produced by the Yarkovsky effect. The age determination of asteroid families and pairs was another pillar of this work. Over the past decade it turned out that the Yarkovsky effect must be taken into account for backward propagation of pair/family members. We modified the current method for estimating the age of asteroid pairs to be suitable for weakly convergent cases and discovered 7 young pairs with similarsized components, which is in contradiction with the current theory of pair formation. In addition, we focused on an interesting pair of asteroids ...


Inner belt asteroids in the spinorbital resonance
Vraštil, Jan ; Vokrouhlický, David (advisor)
Context: Slivan (2002) determined spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde sense of rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde sense of rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods either short or long. It was shown that YarkovskyO'KeefeRadzievskiiPaddack (YORP) effect can explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, it drives spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spinorbital resonance known as Cassini state 2. Vokrouhlický et al. (2002) dubbed these configurations "Slivan states". Aims: A question arises whether Slivan states could exist also in other regions of the main asteroid belt, in particular its inner part, where observations are most easily obtained. Here, however, dynamical difficulties arise due to convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6. We investigate possibilities of a longterm stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt. Method: We used SWIFT integrator to determine orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. In the case of 20 Massalia, we observed the asteroid in 2011, and used these new data to help better solve the rotation state using the...


Dynamics of small bodies in the Solar System: from dust particles to asteroid
Pokorný, Petr ; Vokrouhlický, David (advisor) ; Borovička, Jiří (referee) ; Wiegert, Paul (referee)
In this thesis, we study two different topics: collisional probability between two bodies and dynamics of the sporadic meteoroids in the Solar System. Determination of the collision probabilities in the Solar System is one of the important problems in mod ern celestial mechanics. Here, we generalize classical theories of the collisions between two bodies by Öpik, Wetherill or Greenberg by including the KozaiLidov oscillations, a mechanism that significantly change orbital eccentricity and inclination in the Solar System. Sporadic meteors have been studied for many decades providing a wealthy re source of data. Here, we build dynamical steadystate models for all known populations observed in the sporadic meteoroid complex based on the latest and most precise data provided by Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). Our models using the latest theo ries for cometary populations in the Solar System accurately describe observed sporadic background population. Our results are in agreement with observations provided by space probes IRAS and LDEF.


Asteroid families and their relation to planetary migration
Rozehnal, Jakub ; Brož, Miroslav (advisor) ; Vokrouhlický, David (referee)
In this thesis, we study how the planetary migration affects asteroid families. We identify the families among the Trojans of Jupiter by analysing their properties in the space of resonant elements, the sizefrequency distribution and the colour indices. The previously reported number of families (10) seems to be overestimated, our analysis indicates that there is only one collisional family among Trojans with the parentbody size DPB > 100 km. We also performed a simulation of the longterm orbital evolution of the Trojan families. We used a modified version of the SWIFT symplectic integrator where the migration is set analytically. We found that the families are unstable even in the late stages of the migration, when Jupiter and Saturn recede from their mutual 1:2 resonance. Hence, the families observed today must have been created after the planetary migration ended. In the last part of the work, we study a formation of asteroid families in the Main Belt during the Late Heavy Bombardement. We simulate perturbations induced by migrating planets in the "jumping Jupiter" scenario (Morbidelli et al., 2010) and we conclude that big families (DPB > 200 km) created during the bombardement should be observable today.


Inner belt asteroids in the spinorbital resonance
Vraštil, Jan ; Vokrouhlický, David (advisor) ; Brož, Miroslav (referee)
Context: Slivan (2002) determined spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde sense of rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde sense of rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods either short or long. It was shown that YarkovskyO'KeefeRadzievskiiPaddack (YORP) effect can explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, it drives spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spinorbital resonance known as Cassini state 2. Vokrouhlický et al. (2002) dubbed these configurations "Slivan states". Aims: A question arises whether Slivan states could exist also in other regions of the main asteroid belt, in particular its inner part, where observations are most easily obtained. Here, however, dynamical difficulties arise due to convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6. We investigate possibilities of a longterm stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt. Method: We used SWIFT integrator to determine orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. In the case of 20 Massalia, we observed the asteroid in 2011, and used these new data to help better solve the rotation state using the...


Rovnice vedení tepla ve fyzice planetek a meteoroidů
Pohl, Leoš ; Brož, Miroslav (advisor) ; Vokrouhlický, David (referee)
Nongravitational forces caused by thermal emission of photons can significantly change orbits and spin states of asteroids in the long term. A solution of the Heat Conduction Equation (HCE) in an asteroid is necessary to evaluate the forces. Finite Difference Methods (FDMs) are implemented in a Fortran numerical HCE solver to calculate a temperature distribution within a system of 1dimensional slabs which approximate the asteroid. We compare the methods w.r.t. convergence, accuracy and computational efficiency. The numerical results are compared with a simplified steadystate analytical solution. We calculate the nongravitational accelerations and resulting semimajor axis drift from the numerical results. The implemented FDMs are shown to be convergent with denser grids and the best method has been selected. The analytical solution provides a good firstguess estimate of the temperature amplitude. The drift in semimajor axis of the tested asteroids, which is due to the nongravitational forces, is in orderofmagnitude agreement with more accurate models and observational data.


Recent detections of the YORP effect and their further possibilities
Vraštil, Jan ; Vokrouhlický, David (advisor) ; Ďurech, Josef (referee)
Radiation forces and torques can, on a long term, modify translational and rotational motion of small asteroids and meteoroids. In this thesis I focuse on the radiation torques dubbed the YarkovskyO'KeefeRadzievskiiPaddack (YORP) effect. In particular, my principal goal was to analyse available photometric database of small asteroids and suggest candidate objects for which the YORP effect could be directly detected during the next few years. The structure of the thesis is as follows: (i) in the Introduction I discuss general role of radiation forces and torques in the motion of small bodies in the Solar system, (ii) next, in Section 2, I introduce observation methods for determination of the rotation state of asteroids and the way how YORP may exhibit itself in such measurements, and (iii) finally, in Section 3, I present few candidates for the YORP effect detection. Based on this selection procedure, I obtained ligthcurves of a small nearEarth asteroid (3554) Amun from February till April 2011. These observations were performed using the 65cm telescope of the Astronomical Institute of Charles University located at Ondrejov observatory. Together with available data from Amun's 2009 and 2010 oppositions, the 2011 photometry should serve for shape and pole reconstruction of this body. The YORP effect...

 
 
 