National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Postprandial changes of gastrointestinal hormones in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Sedláčková, Dana ; Nedvídková, Jara (advisor) ; Smitka, Kvido (referee) ; Bílek, Radovan (referee)
Background: The present work was aimed to contribute to current research of gut-brain axis peptides ghrelin, obestatin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) in women patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). These hormones play an important role in regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis and their secretion is disturbed under conditions of eating disorders. Various types of consumed macronutrients may induce different plasma hormone responses, therefore we studied plasma levels of ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and high- protein (HP) breakfast within the meal tests performed under medical supervision. Methods: Plasma hormone responses to high-carbohydrate and high-protein breakfast were examined in patients with AN (total n = 14; age: 24,6 ± 1.8 years, BMI: 15,3 ± 0,7), BN (total n = 15; age: 23,2 ± 1,7 years, BMI: 20,5 ± 0,9) and healthy controls (total n = 14; age: 24,9 ± 1,4 years, BMI: 21,1 ± 0,8). Blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein using an intravenous cannula, the first blood drawn was collected before meal, and then 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after breakfast consumption. Plasma hormone levels were determined by commercially available RIA kits. Results: Fasting and postprandial plasma obestatin...
Orphan Nuclear Receptor TLX (NR2E1) in Regulation of Cell Reproduction and Differentiation
Raška, Otakar ; Kostrouch, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Otová, Berta (referee) ; Nedvídková, Jara (referee)
Nuclear receptors constitute a large family of transcription factors that are powerful regulators of animal tissue metabolism, homeostasis, tissue maintenance and development. They are particularly attractive for their ability to respond to the binding of hormones, metabolites, xenobiotics and artificially prepared molecules and transmit the interaction with these small lipophylic molecules to specific regulatory potential. In search for nuclear receptors that are likely to be critical for neural tissues in invertebrates and conserved during the evolution of animals, we have identified a close homologue of vertebrate TLX in a planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planaria represent very promising biological model systems for studies on tissue maintenance and regeneration. Planaria are able to resorb their tissues and use them as sources of energy during fasting and they re-build their bodies from neoblasts when food is plentiful. Our search in Schmidtea mediterranea's publicly accessible genome sequencing data indicated that planarian genome contains at least one gene with a high degree of similarity to vertebrate TLX. We cloned full length CDS (coding DNA sequence of cDNA) and characterized the gene functionally. This showed that the planarian and vertebrate NR2E1 are highly similar...
Acipimox during Short-Term Exercise Exerts A Negative Feedback of Growth Hormone on Ghrelin Secretion in Patients with Bulimia Nervosa and in Healthy Women: The Role of Lipolysis
Smitka, Kvido ; Nedvídková, Jara (advisor) ; Kršek, Michal (referee) ; Čáp, Jan (referee)
Title: Acipimox during Short-Term Exercise Exerts A Negative Feedback of Growth Hormone on Ghrelin Secretion in Patients with Bulimia Nervosa and in Healthy Women: The Role of Lipolysis Objective: Eating disorders, such as bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN), are characterized by abnormal eating behavior. The main features of BN are binge-eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain. The appetite-modulating peptide ghrelin is secreted by the stomach and shows a strong release of growth hormone (GH). A potential GH-ghrelin feedback loop between stomach and the pituitary has been recently reported. Acipimox (Aci), an analogue of nicotinic acid, inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue (AT) and reduces plasma glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) levels. Exercise and Aci are stimulators of GH secretion. We suppose that a negative feedback from increased GH levels during exercise may play a role in reducing plasma ghrelin levels. We surmised that altered baseline activity and exercise-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) results in excessive stimulation of lipolysis associated with negative energy balance and may lead to abnormal AT metabolism in patients with BN. Disruption of the gut-brain-AT axis might be involved in the pathogenesis of BN. The...
Neuropeptide Y and food intake regulation
Váchová, Barbora ; Telenský, Petr (referee) ; Nedvídková, Jara (advisor)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid member of NPY family. Its biosynthesis occurs in the hypothalamus and its expression also in adipose tissue was described in 2007. NPY is an ubiquitous hormone with central and peripheral effects which lead to the maintenance of homeostasis; NPY is also one of the most significant orexigenic hormones. NPY utilizes G-protein coupled receptors Y1, Y2 and Y5 for its food intake regulation; owing to serious side effects of currently used anti-obesity drugs, the ligands of these receptors (Y1R and Y5R antagonists and Y2R agonists) are considered as targeting molecules for a new therapeutic strategy for obesity treatment. This work is focused on the characteristic of NPY as an orexigenic agent and the possibility of using NPY-based drugs for obesity treatment.
Energetic value of diet and levels to selected hormonal parameters in patients with eating disorders
Doubková, Hana ; Nedvídková, Jara (advisor) ; Smitka, Kvido (referee)
Ghrelin is a gut peptide produced by mainly stomach that induces appetite stimulatory actions. Obestatin is peptide derived from preproghrelin and was initially described to antagonize stimulatory effect of ghrelin on food intake. This work was undertaken to investigate the influence of postprandial status on plasma ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in patients with bulimia nervosa and healthy women. After overnight fasting, plasma ghrelin and obestatin were measured before and after consumption of soluble fiber alone or with glucose. I observed greater decrease of plasma ghrelin and obestatin after consumption of soluble fiber with glucose. I conclude that postprandial plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are influenced by caloric content of the meal and depend on eating behavior.

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