National Repository of Grey Literature 54 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The effect of stress in early ontogeny on behavioural characteristics of rodents
Chumová, Petra ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Petrásek, Tomáš (referee)
Postnatal stress and sensory stimulation are major factors causing the acute changes in development of neuroendocrine system that can influence the expression of behavioural phenotype in adult rodents. Variability of early life environment and stress affect the development of individual through the changes of maternal care. The amount and quality of maternal care influence the function of HPA axis and stress hormone levels in pups during the hyporesponsive period, which provides them lesser vulnerability against the potential impact of stressors. This mechanism is crucial for physiological development of hippocampus, amygdale and prefrontal cortex, the brain regions that are highly important for regulation of adult behaviour. The absence of maternal care and social contact in postnatal and early weaning ontogeny are possibly the biggest stressors in rodents. While neonatal handling (brief maternal separation) has mainly positive effects on the development of emotional and cognitive abilities, prolonged and repeated maternal separation and early weaning result in stress-response alterations and long-lasting impairments in many behavioural traits mediated by the lack of maternal care. This thesis summarizes current knowledge of endocrinological and behavioural consequences of early postnatal stress...
Experimental evaluation of prioritization of animal stimuli by human
Kočková-Amortová, Eliška ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Fajnerová, Iveta (referee)
In some previous studies, felines were evaluated as one of the most beautiful groups of mammals, but at the same time, they were rated as dangerous. Some studies suggest that felines may be among those dangerous animals that are prioritized by humans in terms of faster neural response and preferential processing of visual information. This thesis tests the prioritization of potentially dangerous animals with each other while trying to identify the factors that influence the positive evaluation of felines. It has been found that felines are prioritized among potentially dangerous animals, but the experimental design is very important. Prioritization has not been proven when respondents have followed a different task and the animals have only acted as distractors. Big cats were evaluated as the most beautiful and most feared felines, with morphology, especially the weight of the animal, influencing both of these ratings. The ranking of beauty was also influenced by the presence of the pattern and saturation and lightness of the colors. Compared to viverrids, felines were rated both as more beautiful and more feared. Felines would be more likely protected and treated as pets than viverrids. Furthermore, large felines are relatively well-known among humans, while respondents basically did not know any...
Changes in disgust sensitivity associated with hormonal shifts in women - adaptive system or maladaptive response?
Dlouhá, Daniela ; Kaňková, Šárka (advisor) ; Landová, Eva (referee)
Disgust (the feeling of aversion or repulsion) is based on experiencing something distasteful. As an adaptive system, it works as a protection of oneself, especially against infection by pathogens or behavior that could negatively affect one's evolutionary success. Disgust can be observed in women during times of significant hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or the luteal phase of the ovulation cycle. It was observed that these times can also be related to immunological changes, when the woman and (during pregnancy) the fetus require more intensive protection. Hormonal changes can be a sensitive time for the onset of different psychopathological disorders. These disorders are also often associated with heightened levels of disgust. Studies focusing on disgust and the onset of anxiety disorders indicate that the heightened disgust observed in pregnancy could in some cases be just the maladaptive reaction of a developing mental disorder.
Ontogeny of animal personality
Pšeničková, Eliška ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Sedláček, František (referee)
Personality, consistent differences among individuals in their behaviour across time and contexts is a popular topic that is being addressed in a large number of studies. However, there are not many studies describing the development of personality over a longer period of time. The most relevant factors for development are: mean-level consistency (also called normative consistency), differential consistency (also called repeatability), structural consistency, and individual stability. Personality is generally more plastic in juveniles, where behavior is often more intense, in the sense that they are bolder, more aggressive/active/explorative, and over time, as individuals mature, plasticity and intensity of behavior decreases. Adolescence is a period in which behavior is often restructured and thus is not stable and consistent at this life-stage. However, behavior does not necessarily change during ontogeny, it may remain unchanged, or the intensity of behavior may also increase with age. Selected models describing the ontogeny of the animal personality are not sufficient and new ones need to be formulated. These should include more variables, for example genetic or maternal factors. This work is a review of studies about ontogeny of animal personality. KEY WORDS: Personality, ontogeny,...
The impact of hierarchy in birds on various parameters of fitness
Oblonská, Aneta ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Klvaňová, Alena (referee)
Many birds species live in hierarchically structured flocks. The aim of this thesis is determine how the hierarchy is organized to what and extent the hierarchy influence the fitness of dominant individuals. It is focused on the well explored effects of instrinsic factors such as age, body size and sex as well as on the influence of personality that has been examined in recent years. Advantages of hierarchy can be demonstrated by long-term studies, that observe the stability of the hierarchy. Apparently, dominant individuals are able to inform others about their social status and fighting ability through the signal status, which is an honest signal of overall qualities this individuals. Dominant individuals have significantly higher reproductive success, but the mechanisms may differ and reproductive success can achieved through indirect correlations of fitness such as priority food access or better territory. But there are some exceptions where dominant individuals do not profit from their social status. Key words: hierarchy, dominance, social systems, fitness, reproductive success
Cognitive abilities in reptiles and relevant research methodology
Polonyiová, Alexandra ; Němec, Pavel (advisor) ; Landová, Eva (referee)
Reptiles are a neglected group in the study of cognitive abilities of Amniota. Due to their phylogenetic relationship with birds and mammals, knowledge about reptile brains and cognition is important to understanding their evolution in other amniote groups. In this thesis, I summarized the literature on cognitive abilities in reptiles, which focuses on spatial orientation, such as orientation based on visual cues or compass navigation, associative learning, mainly visual discrimination and operant conditioning, and social learning. It has been shown that some reptilian species are capable of flexible behaviour and, given the right methodology, can successfully solve a number of cognitive tasks. I also briefly treated the size and structure of reptile brains, providing the neural substrate for these abilities. Keywords: reptile, cognitive abilities, brain size, brain structure, spatial orientation, associative learning, social learning
Evolutionary consequences of species specific learning strategies: importance of processes resulting in food aversion and special case of social transmission
Landová, Eva ; Fuchs, Roman (advisor) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee) ; Sedláček, František (referee)
t t Summary This PhD. thesis contributesto the investigationof aposematism- the phenomenonexplaining occuÍTenceof warning coloration in nature. Aposematismis anantipredatorystrategyousuallybasedonpredatorlearning to avoid a noxious prey with a conspicuoussignal. However, not only particularaspectsof aposematicprey signalling (waming colour pattern, conspicuousness,unpalatability),but also predator'spsychologyleadingto avoidancebehaviouris animportantfactorin theevolutionof aposematism. The differentialspecies-specificresponseof nine speciesof our conrmon passerine birds to living aposematicprey (the ťrebug) and correspondingunderlyingvariationin predator'secolory requirements has beenstartingpointof thisPhD.thesis. The next partsof the presentthesishavebeenfocusedmainly on determinationof thesespeciesthat respondspositively (throughoutinnate biases,betterlearningor memoryetc.)to the warningsignalof aposematic prey. The diversity of psychological processes leading to avoidance behaviourin thesespecieshas beenassessed.Firstly, we investigateif the avoidancebehaviouris acquiredby learningor ifthe preyis avoidedon the basisof innatebiasesin severalspeciesof family Paridae. Thenwe focused onmodeof avoidanceleaminganddurabilityof acquiredbehaviourin model species(greattits).The changesin memoryfor...

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