National Repository of Grey Literature 89 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
A comparison of lethal and maximum tolerated dose of standard acetylcholinesterase reactivators
Žárská, Nikola ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Marek, Jan (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate Bc. Nikola Žárská Supervisor PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Consultant Mgr. Martina Hrabinová Title of Thesis A comparison of lethal and maximum tolerated dose of standard acetylcholinesterase reactivators. Diploma thesis deals with the topic of nerve agents. Specifically, it demonstrates the reactivating effect of oxime HI-6 (at 100 % maximum tolerated dose and 5 % median lethal dose) on the acetylcholinesterase inhibited by sarin. The experiment was carried out in vivo in Balb/c mice. The treatment was administered either with oxime HI-6 alone, in the above- mentioned doses, or in combination with the parasympatholytic atropine. The change in activity of acetylcholinesterase was measured by spectrophotometrically method, modified by the Ellman, in blood and brain. There were no signs of sarin intoxication in mice, that where treated with 100 % maximum tolerated dose of HI-6, in compare to mice treated with atropine only and 5 % median lethal dose of HI-6, where the intoxication was observed. It was founded that after i.m administration of 100 % maximum tolerated dose, the HI-6 concentration reached 500 µM in plasma and 10 µM in brain. This concentration is safe, but for...
Changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy.
Gierová, Lucie ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of this work was to determine changes in resting energy expenditure in three periods of pregnancy using indirect calorimetry and assess correlations between the obtained resting energy expenditure values and anthropometric parameters. Methods To determine resting energy expenditure was used indirect calorimetry, which measured oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, from which this value was calculated. Measurements were performed in seven healthy pregnant women. Measurements took place over three periods. The first examination took place from the 17th to the 27th week of pregnancy, the second from the 28th to the 35th week of pregnancy and the third from the 36th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Results We found that resting energy expenditure values increased with pregnancy length (REE1 = 1670 ± 148 kcal/day; REE2 = 1717 ± 230 kcal/day; REE3 = 1984 ± 209 kcal/day). Also, correlations have been found with age, body weight, fat free mass and fat mass, body surface area, body mass index, and other parameters. Conclusion During pregnancy many changes happen, including metabolic changes. We acknowledged that with increasing duration of pregnancy REE increases, most significantly at the end of pregnancy. This increase is related to a large number of factors, as correlation...
Bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of body composition during pregnancy.
Nosková, Andrea ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive and rapid method of determining the amount of body fluids and their distribution within the extracellular and intracellular space based on tissue resistance. The device is able to estimate the mass of fat and muscle tissue due to different amounts of water. The aim of the thesis was to determine the structure of human body in different phases of pregnancy by means of bioimpedance spectroscopy. There are not many research institutes in the Czech Republic dealing with the development of metabolic and physical changes during pregnancy. Seven pregnant women were involved in the clinical observational study. They had physiological pregnancy, good metabolic health, non-smokers and non-drinkers. Except one woman, they were all primiparous. These pregnant women were examined a total of three times by the Body composition monitor (BCM). The measured values showed increase of weight in all examined cases by roughly about 13,3 kg (median). Ratios lean mass tissue/height 2 ratios (LTI) and fat/height 2 ratios (FTI) has reached their maximum at the end of the third trimester. The amount of total fluid (TBM), intracellular fluid (ICW) and extracellular fluid (ECW) increased gradually. The highest peak of all fluids was reached in the third trimester and with...
Resting energy expenditure during lacatation.
Klečka, Michal ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of diploma thesis was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate oxidation in Czech lactating women and their relation to measured anthropometric parameters. Methods The indirect calorimetry was used to asses REE. Subsequently, the oxidation of substrates was calculated. At the same time were measured anthropometric parameters of breastfeeding women. Then the correlation was investigated. The total amount of examination were three times. First was in the time three weeks after birth, the second one was three months postpartum and the last was six months after birth. Results The mean values of REE in lactating women were 1577±93 kcal/day in the time of three weeks after birth. Three months after birth it was 1622±140 kcal/day. Six months after birth it was 1545±80 kcal/day. Significant positive correlation was proved between REE and triceps skinfold thickness (r = 0,98; P < 0,05) and also chest circumference (r = 0,99; P < 0,05). Both were three weeks after birth. Breastfeeding women had a value of lipid oxidation 60 % of substrate oxidation three weeks postpartum, which decreased to 46 % three months postpartum due to sharp increase (from 8 % to 18 %) of carbohydrate oxidation value. This increase could correspond to the preferential use of glucose by the mammary...
Role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases
Vlková, Kateřina ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Kateřina Vlková Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, PhD. Title of the bachelor thesis: The role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases The basic biological function of uric acid in the human body is to protect cells from oxidative damage. More precisely, its behavior depends on the physico-chemical environment in which it is located. Under certain conditions and higher concentration in serum, it may act as a prooxidant and participate in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. These are mainly kidney disease, non-alcoholic steatosis of the liver, diabetes mellitus II. type and metabolic syndrome. These diseases can precede cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular failure may be caused by some mechanisms. These mechanisms include especially oxidative stress, inflammation, reduced availability of nitric oxide and endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, insulin resistance or metabolic disorders. The cause of cardiovascular disease associated with uric acid has not been proved. It can only serve as a intermediator of harmful effects on vascular tissue and myocardium. Keywords: uric acid, oxidative stress, inflammation,...
The influence of physical activity on energy metabolism parameters of pregnant and lactating women
Imrichová, Tamara ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hronek, Miloslav (referee)
8 2. ABSTRACT Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Tamara Imrichová Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title of master thesis: The influence of physical activity on energy metabolism parameters of pregnant and lactating women Background: The aim of our work was to compare changes in the parameters of energy metabolism and then evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the parameters of physical activity of pregnant and lactating women. Methods: Evaluation of energy metabolism was carried out by the method of indirect calorimetry. The calorimeter can estimate the resting energy expenditure (REE) and oxidation of individual nutritional substrates (after determining the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine). To determine the parameters of physical activity, women were given to complete a 7 days questionnaire, which was evaluated on the basis of recalculation using metabolic equivalents. Results: In our study, we observed an increase in REE during pregnancy in the third trimester and an increase in volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) compared to lactating women. The values of respiratory and non-protein respiratory quotient remained unchanged. In case of oxidation...
The influence of physical activity on body composition parameters of pregnant and lactating women
Skoncová, Damiána ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hronek, Miloslav (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Damiána Skoncová Supervisor of master thesis: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title of master thesis: The influence of physical activity on body parameters of pregnant and lactating women The main target of my diploma was to compare body composition parameters of women in pregnancy and in the lactation. Then, after all these findings determine the impact of physical activity to body composition parameters which we measured by bioimpedance analysis. Data about physical activity we obtained by questionnaire from women before every measurement. Study attended 10 pregnant primiparous women, who have a physiological pregnancy. Study continued in the lactation. Overall we did 8 examinations - 2 examinations in period of gravidity, this were followed by examination on the day of birth, next one on day after birth and last 4 examinations in period of lactation. Body composition parameters were determined on devices, which work on basis of bioimpedance analysis. This method evaluates body composition via weak electric current, which passes through body during measurement. Different tissues show different resistance toward this weak current. Bioimpedance analysis turned out to be as fast,...
Seroma as a follow-up complication after breast cancer surgery
Krupová, Kristína ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy Hradec Králové Department: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Author: Kristína Krupová Supervisior: PhDr. Zděnka Kudláčková, PhD. Consultant: MUDr. Petr Motyčka, PhD. Title of Thesis: Seroma as a follow-up complication after breast cancer surgery Introduction: A seroma is one of the most prevalent postoperative complications of breast cancer surgery. Although it is not a life-threatening complication, it may contribute to the significant patient morbidity, prolong their recovery and consequential hospital stays as well as delay adjuvant therapy. Aim of the thesis: This thesis aimed to look up those patients who experienced the postoperative complication in the form of seroma in the sample of cancer patients who underwent breast cancer surgery. Based on the materials dealing with this issue, we focused on the most frequent factors that may predict the development of this complication and evaluated the impact of the particular factors on the seroma formation and its subsequent puncture. Methods: A total of 240 patients who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent the surgery at the Department of Surgery of University Hospital Hradec Králové in the period from September 1, 2017, to December 31, 2018, were included in the study...
Bioimpedance spectroscopic body analysis during lactation.
Urbánková, Tereza ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
The aim of the diploma thesis was to cover the changes in body composition by bioimpedance spectroscopy in Czech breastfeeding women during three periods - 3 weeks postpartum, 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Eight healthy breastfeeding women were involved in the study. At each examination there were measured anthropometric parameters and bioimpedance spectroscopy parameters by the Body Composition Monitor. Breast milk was also extracted during the study. We observed a gradual decrease in body weight of monitored women. The median weight loss between the first and third examination was 2,2 kg, the median weight in 6 months postpartum was 1,3 kg higher than the median of prepregnancy body weight, two of the women had lower weight 6 months postpartum than before the pregnancy, the body weight of other six women was higher in a scale between 0,1 kg to 3,1 kg. There were not proven statistically significant differences in body composition during lactation. A trend of decrease of TBW was observed during all lactation periods. A trend of slight increase of ICW was observed between the 3rd week and 3rd month postpartum, and then the decrease of ICW in the 6th month postpartum. An increase of LTM and BCM was measured between the 3rd week and 3rd month postpartum, those values have shown a decrease again...
Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds
Suk, Ondřej ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Janďourek, Ondřej (referee)
Author: Ondřej Suk Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds Diploma thesis Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Study program: Pharmacy Background: The aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of newly proposed and prepared quaternary ammonium salts. Methods: Broth microdilution method was used to measure antimicrobial activity of 8 new substances divided into three structure groups on 8 bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia bercovieri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL positive and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Out of the 3 structure groups, the highest antimicrobial potential was found with some methylmorpholine salts and benzylimidazole substituted salts. Generally, the substances were, as supposed, more efficient with the Gram-positive bacteria tribes than with the Gram-negative ones. No bactericidal effect of these substances in the concentration measured was found on the strain of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The Gram-positive strains tested are more sensitive towards the tested substances than the Gram-negative ones. In comparison with some...

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See also: similar author names
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1 Kovařík, M.
12 Kovařík, Martin
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