National Repository of Grey Literature 23 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Functioning of arbuscular mycorrhiza in relation to fungal community composition and environmental conditions
Voříšková, Alena ; Janoušková, Martina (advisor) ; Šmilauerová, Marie (referee) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, a widespread plant-fungal relationship, is based on reciprocal resource exchange. The functioning of this fragile relationship balances on the scale from mutualism to parasitism, depending on the specific context. The thesis aims to interlink the functioning of AM symbiosis both with the composition of AM fungal communities and with different abiotic conditions. The thesis is divided into a methodological and a factual part and consists of three publications and one manuscript. All experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions with medic (Medicago sp.) as host plant. Host plants were inoculated with single AM fungal species in Paper I and II, and with a synthetic AM fungal community of five species in Paper III and IV. The host plant identity, the amount of phosphorus (P) in substrate and the type of substrate played an important role for the achievement of mutualistic AM symbiosis, as demonstrated in Paper I. Paper II showed that mitochondrial and nuclear qPCR markers can be used alternatively for the quantification of particular AM fungal species. However, intraradical fungal biomass was better related to copy numbers of nuclear DNA than of mitochondrial DNA. The functioning of AM symbiosis was modulated by the availability of P, light and water,...
Taxonomy, diversity and clinical relevance of the genus Aspergillus
Hubka, Vít ; Kolařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Labuda, Roman (referee) ; de Beer, Wilhelm (referee)
Aspergillus is a speciose genus encompassing nearly 400 species that has significant economic impacts on human health, the food industry, biotechnology and pharmacology. The research included in this thesis focuses on current issues related to the generic concept, subgeneric classification and species delimitation in Aspergillus. It addresses the need for revisions of several sections or species complexes. It provides novel information regarding etiology of aspergillosis as well as the antifungal susceptibilities of several less common opportunistic pathogens. The taxonomic section of the thesis contributes to the taxonomic stability and the new concept of the genus Aspergillus, which changed in response to the discontinuation of dual nomenclature in fungi. Sufficient arguments were collected (e.g., verification of monophyly, unifying phenotypic characters) for maintaining a broad concept of the genus and avoiding splitting it into several genera. All genera typified by sexual morphs and having Aspergillus asexual states were synonymized with Aspergillus and the appropriate names adopted; new combinations were made for teleomorphic species that lacked Aspergillus names. This thesis also contributed to infrageneric taxonomy of the genus via the proposal of four new sections in the subg. Circumdati,...
Ecology of yeasts in forest soils
Mašínová, Tereza ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Marečková, Markéta (referee) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Microbial communities inhabiting upper soil horizons represent an important component of forest ecosystems. However, despite the evidence that yeasts represent an integral part of topsoil fungal communities, their role in forest ecosystems received so far little attention. The aims of my PhD thesis were to describe yeast communities in soil and litter of a temperate forest using high- throughput sequencing of environmental DNA, identify dominant yeast species and to explore how the composition of yeast communities reflects the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. I also aimed to isolate yeasts from forest topsoil, describe novel yeast taxa abundant according to the environmental DNA survey and screen representative isolates for the traits relevant to their involvement in organic matter transformation. I have demonstrated that in forest topsoil, yeasts represent a substantial proportion of fungal communities with higher relative abundance in soil than in litter. In litter, yeast communities differ significantly among beech, oak and spruce-dominated stands. Drivers of community assembly are probably more complex in soils and comprise the effects of soil chemistry and vegetation. Even though there are similarities in the response of the communities of yeasts and filamentous fungi to...
Importance of fungal decomposition of wood in the ecosystems of natural forests
Štercová, Lucie ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
The decomposition of organic substrates represents an important part of the global carbon cycle and affects its global change through CO2 release. In temperate forests, deadwood represents a large carbon stock, its amount and decomposition is crucial for ecosystem biodiversity and functioning. The fungi are omnipresent powerful decayers in all terrestrial ecosystems. Their ability to decompose all deadwood compounds, mainly lignocellulose, is highly important. Without fungi, the wood decompositions and the release of withheld nutrients back to nutrient cycles couldn't be performed. While many studies were concerned with the estimation of decomposition rates of deadwood, still deeper knowledge about microbial decomposition processes and the diversity of saproxylic species and their interaction is needed. The fungi are still underrepresented in dead wood studies. This study had two main objectives. First was to describe the fungal community on downed deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba in natural forest of Salajka in the Czech Republic, to reflect the substrate changes during the different decay stages, and to link the enzyme activities to fungal community composition and their described ecophysiologies. Second aim was to describe the fungal communities on standing and downed dead logs of...
Website development with web analytics implementation
Kolařík, Miroslav ; Klán, Petr (advisor) ; Galba, Alexander (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to create a company website according to the latest trends and standards including inherit web analytics implementation. The website should inform new and current customers, raise public awareness about the company and provide data to analyze its usage. The theoretical part briefly describes key terms, such as HTML, CSS and web analytics methods. The practical part focuses on creating website optimized for mobile devices with a focus on basic search engine optimization and successful Google Analytics implementation.
The effect of microbiota on pathogenesis of gut diseases
Galanová, Natalie ; Kolařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hudcovic, Tomáš (referee)
Gut microbiota is considered an important factor in the development of various diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, n = 127), Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 64). A part of this thtesis is to prepare clinical material of different sorts (stool, biopsy) for sequencing on Illumina Miseq platform. This is achieved trough DNA isolation, amplification of 16S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), normalization and ligation of sequencing adaptors. The aim of this project is to describe the differences between microbiota in healthy and diseased subjects in case of IBD or unimpaired and tumorous tissue for CRC patients. This research is also being based on cultivation, where a fresh stool samples (n = 3) are cultivated in a broad range of conditions, which enables us to obtain ecophysiological and species diversity of these samples by traditional and molecular methods. The cultivable fungi are also assigned reliable taxonomy by amplification of relevant genes (ITS1, β tubulin, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, RPB2) followed by both-sided Sanger sequencing. Selected species of fungi are processed into lysates, which are used for stimulation of mice macrofage cell line (RAW). Therefore the impact on immunity response is studied in vitro and...
Human gastrointestinal mycobiome in health and disease
Galanová, Natalie ; Kolařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hudcovic, Tomáš (referee)
This Bachelor thesis is a complex review of information about mycobiome of human digestive tract. It summarizes the known incidence, diversity and abundance of fungi in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract together with factors that determine composition of its communities. It also describes plentiful interactions with immune system, other microbes and between fungal species themselves. Then there is a brief remark about methodology that is in use for this subject together with its pros and cons. Thesis sums up and discusses current knowledge about the healthy mycobiome, highlighting cases, when it plays role in the formation of disbalance often resulting in an outbreak of a disease. The paper considers ecology and detailed interactions with the environment for Candida species, the dominant gastrointestinal fungus. Intestinal mycobiota has been lately purposed as an important factor in the development of certain local diseases, which include inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, or irritable bowel syndrome. Moreover other seemingly unrelated diseases have been associated with a change in intestinal mycobiome in the recent years. Finally intestinal community plays with its immunogenic nature important role in defense mechanisms elsewhere within the body. Key...
Cellulolytic fungi and their diversity on plant litter
Gálová, Diana ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Litter decomposition requires the presence of corresponding degradative enzymes, produced mainly by fungi. Forest soils show considerable spatial heterogeneity of distribution of these enzymes at diferent scales. Moreover, enzyme pruduction varies during the year, usually accompanied by the change in fungal community composition. In this work I examined if this spatial heterogeneity can be seen even at a scale of an individual leaf and whether the fungal community differs among enzyme activity hotspots and inactive parts of the leaves. Another goal was isolation of celulytic fungi from cellulose litterbags incubated on forest floor using particle filtration and dilution-to-extinction method. In a broadleaved forest dominated by oak leaves at different stages of decay were collected: senescent leaves on twigs, and leaves after 2, 10 and 22 months of decomposition. Ten leaves per season were taken for analysis of cellobiohydrolase activity over the leaf surface. Leaves were attachmed onto melted agarose plate and leaf surface was covered with low melting point agarose containing fluorescently labelled substrate. For each leaf a map of enzyme activity was created and area with the high and low enzyme activity was identified. From both sites a square of approx. 1 cm2 was cut out, DNA was extracted and fungal...
Diversity and interactions of microbes associated with White nose syndrome
Fabryová, Anna ; Kolařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Haňáčková, Zuzana (referee)
White-nose syndrome is a severe disease of hibernating bats, which has been lately revealed among their colonies in United States and Canada. This infection causes extensive declines of bat populations in aforementioned area. Causative agent of this disease is a psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The syndrome got its name according to a white fungal growth found on affected bats. Recently it has been shown that growth of P. destructans is probably inhibited by Pseudomonas bacteria species. In this work existing knowledges of bacterial-fungal interactions are summarized and significant antifungal metabolites of Pseudomonas species are exhibited.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 23 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
5 Kolařík, Martin
1 Kolařík, Matouš
3 Kolařík, Matěj
1 Kolařík, Michal
5 Kolárik, Martin
3 Kolárik, Matej
1 Kolárik, Matúš
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