National Repository of Grey Literature 175 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Cryptocurrencies: Threats and Investigative Opportunities for Law Enforcement
Gonzalez, Eva ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Karásek, Tomáš (referee)
Cryptocurrencies have developed and widely spread within recent years. Their anonymous and decentralised characteristics have attracted criminals who leverage these technologies to sell and purchase illicit goods on the black market while concealing their identities and avoid prosecution. The new development of cryptocurrencies and their underlying architecture blockchain has had positive and negative effects on the success of law enforcement investigations. It is perceived as a threat when there are factors that increase the complexity of law enforcement investigations due to the use of highly anonymous cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin mixers. Cryptocurrencies are also perceived as a threat when criminals use them for money laundering purposes. Conversely, the rise of cryptocurrencies also introduces new opportunities for law enforcement investigations. Records of cryptocurrency transactions in the blockchain help law enforcement to trace suspicious addresses by the emergence and improvement of analysis tools. In parallel, anti- money laundering (AML) regulations and the financial authorities have proved to play a key role in fighting against money laundering and gather information on suspicious activities carried out through financial institutions. The analysis of this dissertation sets forth that...
National Resilience in CyberSpace: The UK's National Cyber Security Strategy Evolving Response to Dynamic Cyber Security Challenges
Johnson, Kailyn ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Karásek, Tomáš (referee)
Criminals and other threat actors are adapting to the growing reliance individuals, organisations, and nations have upon technology and the internet and have augmented their capabilities to be oriented in that direction for malevolent purposes. Cyberspace has become an extremely large vulnerability for countries because it facilitates any person with access to a computer or other technology along with malicious intent, to cause harm. The increased risk people and organisations now face in cyberspace is not isolated to just them. Nations now are also at an increased risk because of the evolving ubiquity of cyberspace and technology. States are at risk of cyber threats because of vulnerabilities in individual citizens and organisations. Nations have now become intended targets by a larger spectrum of threat actors. This research examines how the United Kingdom has developed their specific national cyber security strategy to improve national resilience to threats, and how well the UK government adapts to an ever- changing threat landscape. The UK is still deficient in the appropriate and thorough execution of their proposed strategies and strategic policies to attain national resilience and security. There have been strides to achieve that goal, but the national strategy continues to fail to...
Involuntary Securitisation: The process of securitisation and social constructivism in Cyprus
Antoniou, Georgie ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
The following thesis will focus on the process of involuntary securitisation and the social construction of threats in the case study of Cyprus, a state torn in half by an ethnic conflict that has been present for forty years. Involuntary securitisation does not require a securitising actor to convince the audience that a referent object is under existential threat and accept the use of extraordinary measures to securitise it. As the audience, in the case study portrayed in this thesis, is already surrounded by what they perceive as existential threat, no negotiations are needed for them to allow extreme measures to be taken. An area that is also examined in this thesis is the process of desecuritisation and the reasons behind why it is difficult, if not impossible to achieve, in environments such as the case study examined. With evidence collected from Greek Cypriot newspapers, the author will answer research questions regarding the centrality of the conflict and its contribution to the creation of involuntary securitisation process. A thorough analysis of securitisation processes and the construction of threats will be presented in this thesis with evidence to support the arguments made. A brief history of Cyprus and the Cyprus problem will be examined in this paper to provide a background of how...
Influencing the Course of the Events: the NATO Military Intervention in Libya and the Expansion of the Islamic State in the Country
Colombo, Jonathan ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
On 17th March 2011, the UN Security Council approved the resolution number 1973 urging the Gaddafi regime to stop the use of military force against the anti-establishment rebels and authorizing the international community to establish a no-fly zone and to adopt all the necessary measures to protect the population. Consequently, an international coalition, formed by the US, the UK and France, began air military operations in Libya supporting the rebels. Such military intervention caused the capitulation of the regime and consistent economic damages to the country's infrastructures. Despite the regime change and the hope of establishing a new political order, the country faced a time of deep political, military and economic crisis. Therefore, the political situation deteriorated after the elections of 2014 when the exponents of the House of Representatives and the General National Congress started to fight each other in order to expand their political and military influence. The void of power left by the decline of the former regime, coupled with the dissolution of the Libyan Army, caused instability in the country and favoured the rise of extremist terrorist groups. In particular, the Islamic State found the perfect habitat to establish an operative branch in the country aiming at the control of...
Cybersecurity and national resilience in Estonia
Nicol, Cameron ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Karásek, Tomáš (referee)
This thesis is an attempt to analyse the relationship between the increasingly popular concept of national resilience and cybersecurity. National resilience is a concept that has permeated the security and policy making realms in recent times. This relationship is examined by using the Baltic nation of Estonia as a model due to the nation being regarded as the 'most digitally advanced in the world'. The main objective of the thesis is to investigate the relationship between cybersecurity and national resilience and discuss the implications of this relationship in the wider security context. The thesis begins by establishing if a nexus exists between the concept of national resilience and cybersecurity. In order to better understand the potential impact cyber security could have on a nation's resilience, it is important to establish the relationship between the two concepts. After the nexus is successfully established, the thesis then charts the development of the concept of resilience within the Estonian national security documents. The aim of this exercise is to demonstrate how the concept of resilience has been transformed over the years within an Estonian context while comparing its trajectory to the wider global trend of the concept. The research technique of content analysis is utilised to...
Imperial Responsibility: The Exploitation of Indigenous Forces in Modern Empire Building
Bey IV, George ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
Wars involving either Russia or the United States have been a mainstay of the 20th and 21st centuries, since the end of World War II, in their search of hegemonic dominance over the international world order. This search for supremacy has generated numerous questions regarding whether Russia or the United States should be viewed as Empires. When the question of Empire arises it tends to focus on how the indigenous populations that reside in these war zones may be affected. However, the question of how indigenous forces are used as a way to examine if states accept or deny imperial responsibility/empire is not a widespread topic. Therefore, this thesis is intended to answer that question. In the process it examines three case studies per country. First, looking at Russia's case studies: Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Crimea. Second, examining the United States' case studies: Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The research conducted for this thesis has provided a number of key findings regarding both countries. It has demonstrated, on the one hand, that Russia has created a framework for imperialization, which can be tailor fitted to the socio-cultural landscape of any state they desire to add to their imperial body. Consequently, this state should instead be viewed as the Neo-Russian Empire; a state that...
Between Defence and Offence: An Analysis Of The US "Cyber Strategic Culture"
Persoglia, Davide ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Karásek, Tomáš (referee)
The present thesis deals with the US strategic approach and posture to cybersecurity from a national point of view. On such a topic much has been written already, nonetheless the present work finds a degree of originality by tackling such object of analysis shifting the focus to a ideational perspective. By drawing insights from the meta-theory of Constructivism and the rich research tradition on strategic culture, the present thesis aims at understanding what kind of norms seem to be informing/mirroring what has been labelled the US "cyber strategic culture", and if it is possible to speak of a "shift", or at least track an evolution regarding them, in a historical timeframe that runs from the early 2000s up to the present days. To pursue the stated research agenda, a methodology grounded in discourse and thematic analysis is utilised, with an analytical framework centred around two opposite "thematic normative categories" (themes) called "defensiveness" and "offensiveness", each characterised by a "story" made up by three sub-themes, delineating specific strategic behaviours. A set of official strategies, all tackling cybersecurity and published during the mentioned timeframe by both the White House and the military, form the primary sources to which such methodology is applied, with particular...
Integration of Russia into liberal hegemonic security order
Kafka, Hugo ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Odintsov, Nikita (referee)
This work deals with the Russian Federation's position in the international security system after the Cold War. After the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, there was a process of integration of the Russian Federation into the security order led by the U.S. and constructed mainly after the World War II. The thesis explores the development of this process by examining Russia's cooperation with the U.S.-led West on the resolution of three conflicts, which each presented a sort of a crisis for the new security environment and for the integration process. In the wars in Bosnia, Kosovo and Syria, Russia was presented with a challenge of finding or updating its position in relation to the West. Cooperation or clashes are observed mainly in the military, diplomatic and narrative dimensions. The thesis provides an account of events which are seen as indicative of the status of the integration process. It is found that in the wars accompanying the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the Russian Federation was attempting to gain international prestige as a constructive member of the international community, but in many cases, it lacked the capability to achieve its goals, especially when they required opposition to the U.S. and the West. In the period between the Kosovo War and the Syrian...
US-Russia Relations and the Mass Media: The Representation of Vladimir Putin in the American Media
Alikina, Valeriia ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Ditrych, Ondřej (referee)
Russian-American Relations and the Mass Media Securitization of Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump in the American Press by Valeriia Alikina This thesis is focused on two issues relevant to Security Studies and Political Science: relations between the Russian Federation and the United States of America, which are currently experiencing yet another decline, and problematics of political journalism. It reviews the process of securitization of Russia through speech acts in the mass media of its historical opponent, the United States. First, the thesis provides a theoretical framework, securitization theory, introducing its main principles. To prove that the process of securitization indeed occurs, the method of discourse analysis is employed. The third chapter provides background information on the relations between the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States since the end of the World War II; this information is completed by the role mass media had in their affairs. The next chapter frames the issue of propaganda, elaborating on the meaning behind this concept, the "fake news" narrative, and the idealistic idea of media objectivity. In the fifth chapter, the case study, two processes of securitization are reviewed. The first one is the American mainstream media, namely ​The New York Times​ and ​The...
The EU's response to the discrimination of the Rohingya in Burma since 2011
Božinovová, Alexandra ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Bruner, Tomáš (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to find out the European Union's position on the discrimination of Rohingya in Burma since 2011. Over the years the country has initiated a number of reforms, transformed its political system and held first democratic elections. Since Burma has undergone considerable changes, the European Union first eased and then lifted almost all sanctions in 2013. The most pressing issue still facing Burma is the violations of human rights, especially in the case of Rohingya minority. Methodologically, the study is anchored by content textual analysis which was applied to a wide range of documents from which data was obtained for the analytical part of the study. The theoretical basis of the thesis is agenda-setting and salience. These theories were used to identify two hypotheses that examine the EU's position on the Rohingya crisis on the Unions agenda and its salience. Research has shown that the Parliament and the EEAS are paying the greatest attention. On the contrary, the Council and DEVCO spend less time on the issue. Despite all of the Union's efforts and the financial, human and material assistance provided, the situation has not improved and the Rohingya still face human rights abuses and are not full citizens of Burma.

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