National Repository of Grey Literature 2 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Friedrich August von Hayek a otázka evoluce liberárních pravidel
Doleček, Pavel ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Profant, Martin (referee) ; Hříbek, Tomáš (referee)
The present dissertation deals with the topic of the relationship between political and moral philosophy and the epistemological and methodological arguments of Friedrich August von Hayek. The aim of the dissertation is to defend in general the assertion that Hayek's philosophy is the application of epistemological and methodological positions to moral and political philosophy and that this application is implemented through the continuous process of defining the basic theoretical positions towards philosophical tradition. This general statement is elaborated on in several perspectives. The first perspective puts the concept of knowledge in the forefront, both in the sense of a certain concept of rationality, i.e. the nature of reason and human thinking, and also in the sense of defining the nature and limits of scientific inquiry. The latter follows the development of Hayek's thinking, pointing out the aspects of his philosophy, which are the elaboration of the theories of his predecessors in thought within the Austrian economic school or classical sociology. This perspective also shows that, at a certain stage of his thinking, Hayek considerably moves away from these predecessors, particularly in the context of grasping individualism. The third perspective shows the deeper roots of some of...
The meaning of the dead donor rule in current transplantion ethics
Rusinová, Kateřina ; Šimek, Jiří (advisor) ; Kieslichová, Eva (referee) ; Hříbek, Tomáš (referee)
The thesis presents current understanding of the concept of death and criteria for diagno- sis of death in the context of organ donation. We will argue that 1) the dead donor rule should not be the necessary condition for retrieving organs for transplantation and 2) it should be permissible to retrieve organs from patients that are imminently dying (not dead yet), with respect to the principle of autonomy and non-maleficence. We will first present the impossibility and current inconsistencies in determining the exact "moment of death" and we will then demonstrate that current organ donors do not fulfill biological criteria for death and that the dead donor rule is not respected in clinical practice. We suggest that in the context of recent major technological advances in the field of critical care medicine the dead donor rule becomes irrelevant and does not contribute to the transplantation ethics. The legal concept of death and the biological phenomenon of death become more and more distant. We argue that declaring death is not necessary for ethically justified policy in transplantation. Both the societal trust and the protection of vulnerable individuals can be ensured by different ethical principles (i.e. the principle of autonomy and the principle of non- maleficence). The sound ethical...

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