Nuclear Physics Institute

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2019-02-13
17:44
Stability of the sodium content in selected botanical reference materials
Kameník, Jan ; Kučera, Jan ; Borovička, Jan ; Havránek, Vladimír
Sodium mass fractions in NIST standard reference materials (SRM) SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1515 Apple leaves determined by INAA in our laboratory in recent years has been higher than the certified values. Similarly, increased values were published for SRM 1547 by several other laboratories. The increased Na mass fractions was found also for freshly opened SRM 1547 bottle and for material originating from a different lab. Increased Na mass fractions were confirmed by ICP-MS analysis of both materials. Analysis of archived samples revealed that sodium mass fraction in materials stored in polyethylene capsules is in agreement with the certified values. The sodium content in the glass of SRM 1547 bottle was roughly 10 %. Direct measurement of the Na depth profile by micro-PIXE was not indicative whether Na is released, i.g., by a glass corrosion due to residual humidity in the botanical material. However, a model experiment with freshly prepared and pulverized peach leaves demonstrated that such a scenario is possible for leaf-based materials. Although the study was focused on two NIST materials, the process is possible for any material with rather low Na content.

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2019-02-13
17:44
Role of activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials
Kučera, Jan
The fundamentals of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and practices of both methods are briefly review, together with enlightening their specific role in the preparation of reference materials. The importance of homogeneity testing for the certification and use of reference materials (RMs) using NAA is appraised. Examples of the use of NAA and PGAA for the certification of element contents in environmental, biological, and material science RMs produced by world-leading institutions, such as U.S. NIST, IRMM, IAEA and by national institutions, as well, at the Nuclear Physics Institute within last almost 30 years are presented.

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2019-02-13
17:44
Ultra-low intensity proton beams for radiation response related experiments at the U-120M cyclotron
Matlocha, Tomáš ; Křížek, Filip
The U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Rez is used for radiation hardness tests of electronics for high-energy physics experiments. These tests are usually carried out with proton fluxes of the order of 105–109 proton cm-2 s -1. Some tests done for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at CERN, however, required proton beam intensities several orders of magnitude lower. This paper presents a method which has been developed to achieve the proton beam flux of the order of 1 proton cm-2 s -1. The method is mainly based on reduction of the discharge current in the cyclotron internal Penning type ion source. Influence of this new operation mode on the lifetime of ion source cathodes is discussed.

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2018-12-07
17:59
Stanovení prvkového složení drog neutronovou aktivační analýzou pro zjišťování jejich původu - studie proveditelnosti
Kučera, Jan ; Kameník, Jan ; Sabol, J. ; Šesták, B. ; Kolář, P. ; Roman, M.
Analyzovali jsme pět vzorků heroinu a pět vzorků kokainu zachycených na území České republiky metodou instrumentální neutronové aktivační analýzy (INAA). Alespoň v jednom z analyzovaných vzorků heroinu jsme stanovili 16 stopových prvků, ve vzorcích kokainu se jednalo o 9 stopových prvků. Pozoruhodné rozdíly až v rozmezí několika řádů, jsme zjistili v obsazích prvků Na, Cl, Cr, Zn a Br, zejména ve vzorcích heroinu. Přesnost výsledků INAA jsme prokázali simultánní analýzou certifikovaného referenčního materiálu NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves. Výsledky stanovení stopových prvků v heroinu jsme porovnali s výsledky zahraničních autorů. Dosažené výsledky ukazují na vysoký potenciál metody INAA pro prvkovou charakterizaci drog za účelem zjištění jejich původu, způsobu výroby a čištění či způsobu ředění pro konečné uživatele. Pokládáme za účelné pokračovat v analýzách většího množství vzorků s konečným cílem vytvoření databáze prvkového složení vzorků zkonfiskovaných na území ČR, která by později mohla být rozšířena ve spolupráci se zahraničními protidrogovými a policejními orgány v mezinárodním měřítku.

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2018-11-15
12:43
Preparation of ppHMDSO Thin Films in Capacitively Coupled RF Glow Discharges under Dusty Plasma Conditions
Homola, V. ; Buršíková, V. ; Kelar, L. ; Kelarová, Š. ; Stupavska, M. ; Peřina, Vratislav
The deposition of organosilicone thin films from mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and oxygen by using capacitively coupled R.F. glow discharges under dusty plasma conditions was investigated. High resolution topography and mechanical property maps of the prepared films were acquired by using atomic force microscopy techniques. The chemical bond and composition of the deposited films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanical properties of the films were studied using quasistatic as well as dynamic nanoindentation tests and their surface free energies were evaluated by means of contact angle measuring technique using several testing liquids exhibiting various surface tensions. The thermal stability of the films was studied using thermal desorption spectroscopy. Neural network modelling was used to study the effect of plasma parameters on the hardness of ppHMDSO films

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2018-03-09
13:20
Measurements and usage of cross sections of various (n,chi n) threshold reactions
Chudoba, Petr ; Vrzalová, Jitka ; Svoboda, Ondřej ; Krása, Antonín ; Kugler, Andrej ; Majerle, Mitja ; Suchopár, Martin ; Wagner, Vladimír
Current trend in nuclear reactor physics is a transition from technologies using thermal neutrons to technologies utilizing fast neutrons. Unfortunately focus was put mainly on the thermal neutrons for a long time and lead to very good knowledge about this low energy region, but very scarce coverage of the high energy region. This means that there is a gap in the knowledge of excitation functions for higher energies. This gap spreads from 20 MeV up to 1 GeV and higher. This is exactly the energy region needed for description of advanced nuclear systems such as accelerator driven systems (ADS). Our group from Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the CAS is a member of an international collaboration Energy & Transmutation of Radioactive Waste (E&T RAW). This collaboration focuses on ADS for many years. In order to measure neutron field within ADS models it is necessary to know excitation functions of reactions used to monitor the neutron field. In many cases there are almost no experimental data for suitable reactions. Worse and quite common case is that there are no data at all. Therefore we are also focusing on measurements of these data in order to fill the databases as well as to allow further improvements of codes for nuclear data calculations.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Effect of the eta eta channel and interference phenomena in the two-pion transitions of charmonia and bottomonia
Surovtsev, Yu .S. ; Bydžovský, Petr ; Gutsche, T. ; Kaminski, R. ; Lyubovitskij, V. E. ; Nagy, M.
The basic shape of di-pion mass spectra in the two-pion transitions of both charmonia and bottomonia states is explained by a unified mechanism based on contributions of the pi pi, K (K) over bar, and eta eta coupled channels including their interference. The role of the individual f(0) resonances in shaping the di-pion mass distributions in the charmonia and bottomonia decays is considered.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Neutron Diffraction and Acoustic Emission Measurement During Loading and Unloading of Magnesium Aluminium Binary Alloys
Čapek, Jan ; Máthis, K.
The neutron diffraction and acoustic emission were measured during compression loading-unloading tests in randomly textured cast magnesium and magnesium 2 and 9 wt% aluminium binary alloys. The anelastic behavior and the change of twinned volume related to the detwinning phenomena can be observed during the unloading. The decrease of twinned volume fraction during unloading is most pronounced for Mg 9 wt% Al.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Top-Quark p(T)-Spectra at LHC and Flavor Independence of z-Scaling
Tokarev, M. V. ; Zborovský, Imrich
New results of analysis of top-quark differential cross sections obtained by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations in pp collisions at the LHC in the framework of z-scaling approach are presented. The spectra are measured over a wide range of collision energy root s = 7, 8, 13 TeV and transverse momentum p(T) = 30-1000 GeV/c of top-quark using leptonic and jet decay modes. The LHC data on transverse momentum of the top-quark spectra are compared with the Tevatron data obtained by the Dempty set Collaboration in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 GeV. Flavour independence of the scaling function psi(z) in pp and p (p) over bar interactions over a wide collision energy range root s = 19 - 13000 GeV is verified. This property of psi(z) was found for different hadrons from pi-meson up to. particle. The flavour independence of psi(z) is used as indication on self-similarity of to p-quark production. A tendency to saturation of psi(z) at low z for top-quark is demonstrated. We anticipate that data on low-and high-p(T) inclusive spectra of top-quark production at LHC energies could be of interest for verification of the self-similarity over a wide range of masses and different flavour content of produced particles.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Residual stress determination by neutron diffraction in low-carbon steel wires with accumulated shear deformation
Rogante, M. ; Mikula, Pavol ; Strunz, Pavel ; Zavdoveev, A.
Modern methods of severe plastic deformation (SPD) currently allow obtaining the ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure nearly in any material. In the manufacturing process of wire with UFG structure, a main restriction is the continuous drawing scheme in which this process occurs, thus it is important to consider the factors affecting the drawing efficiency. Despite the data on SPD steels such as strength, plasticity and conductivity, obtained by classical methodologies, further investigations are needed: a key information is the residual stresses (RS) status, and RS determination is an essential issue to improve knowledge of SPD effects. In this work, 15 wires samples made of low-alloyed quality structural steel Grade 08G2S GOST 1050 with accumulated shear deformation - as result of rolling with shear of the metal ingot and conventional wire drawing - have been investigated by neutron diffraction (ND). Results provide substantial data helping to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on RS of the considered steel, as well as additional support to complement the information already achieved by using the other characterization methodologies. Knowledge of the RS status can help developing a lowcarbon wire drawing technology with needed manufacturability and efficiency, playing a decisive role in the debugging of material selection and engineering design requirements.

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