National Repository of Grey Literature 93 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Comparative study of Trichomonas vaginalis strains with various level of metronidazole resistance
Havelka, Michal ; Tachezy, Jan (advisor) ; Kopáček, Petr (referee)
Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic protozoan that causes the human disease trichomoniasis. The most commonly used drug against trichomoniasis is metronidazole. Metronidazole is highly effective, yet in some cases T. vaginalis is resistant to this drug. In T. vaginalis, we distinguish resistance to metronidazole into two types based on the conditions in which it occurs, aerobic and anaerobic resistance. Both types of resistance are associated with changes in the physiology of the parasite. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in hydrogenosome and cytosol associated with metronidazole resistance at the proteome level in aerobically resistant clinical isolates, the aerobically resistant line MR3 and the anaerobically resistant line MR100. A further aim of this work was to characterize the function of hybrid- cluster protein and to clarify its role in resistance to metronidazole since its production is more abundant in both aerobically and anaerobically resistant T. vaginalis. This work contributed to identification of several potential proteins that could play a role in the development of metronidazole resistance and established a foothold for further metabolomic and biochemical studies of metronidazole resistant T.vaginalis.
Popularization of the manipulation hypothesis
BIERLOVÁ, Tereza
This bachelor thesis deals with popularization of manipulation hypothesis among children attending elementary school and general audience in the form of short stories. In the literary part were chosen ten examples of manipulation by a parasite from scientific literature. In the research part was examined the topic of manipulation theory in the current biological textbooks for elementary school. Subsequently were created five short stories of manipulation by a parasite to help the reader understand the relationship in the examples in an easy way.
Host immune response in cutaneous versus visceral form of leishmaniasis
Matějková, Barbora ; Leštinová, Tereza (advisor) ; Jelínková, Kristýna (referee)
Parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania circulate between vectors and hosts during their life cycle, in which they come into contact with the immune system. In the host body, infection can lead to the development of a disease called leishmaniasis. This can manifest itself in a number of ways, with the best known forms being referred to as visceral, mucocutaneous and cutaneous leishmaniasis. This thesis focuses on the host immune response during the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis. In addition, attention has been given to host, vector and parasite factors that differ between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis forms and that may influence the different clinical manifestations. Attention is paid not only to factors related to immunity, but also to factors such as parasite inoculum dose sizes, temperature differences between skin and internal organs, parasite genetics, and others. Keywords - Leishmania, visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, immune response, parasite, immunity
Biogenesis and function of peroxisomes in parasitic protists
Nguyen, Thu Duong ; Tachezy, Jan (advisor) ; Verner, Zdeněk (referee)
Peroxisomes are found in majority of eukaryotes and possibly originate from the last eukaryotic common ancestor, as the proteins involved in their biogenesis are highly conserved. Enzymatic content of peroxisomes is highly diverse and their metabolic activity may vary depending on the cell type. Metabolically, peroxisomes interact with mitochondria and these organelles are functionally linked. Peroxisomes in unicellular eukaryotes are very diverse. The peroxisomes in kinetoplastids are named glycosomes because they contain several glycolic enzymes. The loss of peroxisomes occurs in certain representatives of Alveolata, and peroxisomes are entirely absent in Metamonada group. Anaerobic peroxisomes were found in Archamoebidae. They are metabolically quite distinct from their aerobic counterparts. The properties of these peroxisomes are related to the lifestyle of these protists. This work briefly summarizes information regarding the biogenesis of peroxisomes and their functions, their functional connection with mitochondria and then provide characteristics of peroxisomes in selected protists.
Sezonní dynamika vnitřních parazitů koní v aktivní stáji
HOŘEJŠOVÁ, Barbora
The aim of this thesis is to provide information on internal parasites, developmental stages and the possibilities of husbandry measures aimed at limiting the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses. This information is supported by our own analysis in horses observed on a farm in Mazice between 2020 and 2022. The aim was to evaluate the seasonal effect on the dynamics of egg excretion of gastrointestinal helminths of the Strongylidae family in horses kept in an active stable.
Effect of diet on occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals (dogs, cats, hedgehogs, ferrets).
FILCOVÁ, Kristýna
The literature review, which is the part of the diploma thesis, contains a summary of the most widespread methods of pet food. It also contains a summary of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, hedgehogs and ferrets, and the methods of their diagnostics and therapy. The practical part of my thesis focused on collecting samples of pet excrements in the course of 2021 2023, which were then examined fot the presence of parasites using the standard coprological flotation method. In the course of the above-mentioned years, the questionnares were also provided to the pets owners, which the pet owners filled out. The questionnaire contained questions about the methods of pet food, methods of prevention used against gastrointestinal parasites, possible infection of pets with gastrointestinal parasites and the therapy used, and questions about the knowledge of this issue among pet owners. The number of infections of pets based on methods of pet food, methods of prevention used with individual methods of pet food, occurrence of the endoparasites with the prevention used, the opinion on the effectiveness of the prevention method and the opinion on the possibility to get infected from the infected pet were evaluated as well. The presence of infection with gastrointestinal parasites did not differ in individual categories of pet food. I did not prove that pets fed raw food were infected with parasites from this food. The thesis proves that pet fed heat-treated food, which is not a source of infection, are often infected with parasites. Infection from environment is a source of infection more often than feeding raw food.
Využití fytoterapie v chovu koní
HAVLÍKOVÁ, Natálie
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to conduct research on phytotherapy and herbs used in horse breeding and internal parasites and their developmental stages. Breed-ers are increasingly paying attention to the health care of horses, and for that reason they tend to use unconventional medicine, such as herbs. The research focused on monitoring the effectiveness of a herbal mixture by WILD HERBS s.r.o. which supports against internal parasites, and recommenda-tions for the use of herbs in horse breeding. Monitoring took place on a farm in Mažice, where horses received a mixture fed in several stages by a feeding machine. After feeding the mixture, a coprological examination followed. Large and small strongyles, horse roundworm and horse tapeworm were found in the monitored farm. A clear indication of the effectiveness of the mixture when fed was a signifi-cant reduction in EPG values compared to previous years, which was also the goal. The EPG value in 2022 was 273 which is a significant decrease compared to the previous year of 2021 when the average EPG value was 634. The difference in EPG values between seasons was not significant. The value is rather determined by the current weather or the arrival of a new horse in the herd and the resistance of indi-viduals to the infection. The mixture had a very favorable effect on most horses, but at some point, a few individuals had higher EPG values, which could have been de-termined by several other factors. The steps needed to support a partially parasite-free breeding include collecting faeces, dragging pastures and monitoring the level of parasitic infection, giving suitable herbal mixtures and using anthelmintics in case of heavy infection.
The effect of helminth infection on the productivity of beef cattle
BRABCOVÁ, Aneta
The study aimed to observe the effect of the helminth infection on the productivity of beef cattle breeds. Samples of feces were collected from farms in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic from the Highland, Limousine, Aberdeen Angus, Galloway and Beef Simmental breeds. A total of five cattle farms were monitored during the study. Coprological methods confirmed the presence of parasitic nematodes Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia spp. and Chabertia ovina. Due to the low prevalence of these parasites in the monitored cattle farms, there was no weight loss nor reduction in production. The results of the study demonstrated 100% effectiveness of the targeted veterinary treatment.
Parasite cystatins as inhibitors of cysteine proteases: structural aspects of functional specificity and their evolution
Buša, Michal ; Mareš, Michael (advisor) ; Hudeček, Jiří (referee) ; Kukačka, Zdeněk (referee)
Members of the cystatin family are important inhibitors of cathepsin-type cysteine proteases and are involved in a number of pathologies. Parasite cystatins are attractive target molecules for parasite control, but our knowledge about them is still limited. This work is focused on cystatins of two blood-feeding parasites: the common tick (Ixodes ricinus) as the main vector of Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis, and the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), the causative agent of fasciolosis. Four novel cystatins were functionally and structurally characterized to determine the structural determinants of their inhibitory specificity and describe them in the context of evolution and physiological role of cystatins. The cystatin FhCyLS-2 from F. hepatica has broad inhibitory specificity and is suggested to play a dual role in the regulation of proteolytic systems in host tissue and the parasite gut. FhCyLS-2 combines the characteristics of two cystatin subfamilies in a unique way and is a model representative of a novel evolutionary group of cystatins identified in several orders of parasitic flukes. Ricistatin and iristatin are salivary cystatins of I. ricinus with immunomodulatory effects on the host caused by an exceptionally narrow inhibitory specificity. It was explained by structural modifications of...
Isolation and characterisation of extracellular vesicles of parasitic helminths
MAZANEC, Hynek
Excretory-secretory products (ESP) serve as important mediators of intercellular and inter-species communication. They were originally thought to be secreted mainly in a soluble form, but recent discoveries indicate their delivery through extracellular vesicles (EVs). These membraneous particles provide protection from degradation for some of their components, as well as targeted delivery through various receptors on their surface. As such they have been studied as potent immunomodulators in host-pathogen relationships. With respect to parasitic helminths, EVs are being studied as agents for diagnosis, vaccination or therapeutics. However, their general biology, especially their biogenesis patterns, is still poorly understood compared to their functional role.Therefore, the goal of this thesis is to investigate in more detail the secretion activity of EVs in different tapeworms and their life-cycle stages. Under laboratory conditions, the life cycle of Schistocephalus solidus, a tapeworm with an aquatic life cycle, was established to explore EVs secretion at different developmental stages. Moreover, we used proteomic analyses and ultrastructural observations to identify the main biogenesis pathways behind EVs secretion in a terrestrial tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. This also allowed for the comparison of EVs generation in tapeworms with different host types.

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