National Repository of Grey Literature 152 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Analysis of hazardous metals in rPET granulate
Souček, Elena ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
Production of polymer products has increased rapidly in recent decades. Especially in food industry as a packaging it gained a dominant position when it replaced previously used materials. Due to the direct risk for human health it is necessary to be careful and pay attention to their composition. It is also necessary to develop methods to properly recycle and reuse already used material, not only produce new products. This thesis deals with the study of the content of risk elements in PET regranulate. The samples were completely decomposed by microwave radiation in an environment of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid. They were subsequently analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Flame atomization technique (FAAS) was used to determine Sb and Zn and electrothermal atomization (ETAAS) to determine Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni. This method was also used to study migration of antimony from samples to food simulant under different conditions (temperature, pH). This thesis follows up on the thesis of Mrs. Kryštofová who studied recycled PET flakes.
Study of the content of risk elements in power plant ash
Vlčková, Renáta ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This thesis deals with the study of the content of the risk elements Hg, Cr, Pb and Cd in samples provided by the Thermal Power Plant. Samples of lignite, biomass, fly ash and bottom ash were collected monthly over a period of one year. In addition to this set of samples, river water and fly ash pond water were sampled monthly. A total of 72 samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA 254 and ETAAS). The concentrations of the elements of concern in the lignite and biomass samples decrease in the order Cr > Pb > Hg > Cd and in the fly ash and bottom ash samples decrease in the order Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg. Overall, it was assessed that the concentrations of the risk elements after co-firing of lignite and biomass were mainly transferred to fly ash and less to bottom ash. It was found that the combustion of higher amounts of biomass decreased the Hg, Cr and Pb contents in both fly ash and bottom ash. The water samples according to the determined parameters were classified as unpolluted water.
Study of the content of risk elements in river sediments of the Váh River
Držíková, Klára ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of selected heavy metals in the river sediment of the Váh River. The elements were selected based on their relatively frequent occurrence and adverse effects on humans, fauna, and flora. Also due to their ability of good accumulation and persistence in sediments. The selected elements have a chalcophile character, which plays a significant role in the occurrence of the elements at the sampling sites. The analysis of the collected sediment samples was carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The highest concentration of zinc (386.58 mg/kg), followed by copper (57.67 mg/kg), lead (42.24 mg/kg), and the lowest concentration of mercury (0.332 mg/kg) was measured in the sediments. Sediments are used in agriculture and forestry to improve soil properties. Their application to soils is regulated by Slovak legislation, which sets limit values for risk elements in the concerned sediment and soil. These established limits were not exceeded in any of the sediment samples.
The study of PET bottles in terms of the content of risk elements
Kryštofová, Petra ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of PET bottles in terms of the possible content of risk elements. The contents of antimony, copper and lead were determined in the PET packaging material and in the beverages contained in the bottles. A total of 15 samples of bottled still and infant water available in the Czech sales network were analyzed. The PET material was decomposed in an acidic medium under the action of microwave radiation under optimized conditions. Atomic absorption spectrometric methods with flame or graphite cuvette atomization were used to determine selected risk elements based on the predicted analyte concentrations. In the PET packaging material, 159.35 to 265.68 mgkg-1 of antimony were determined, the determined values of lead concentration were in the range of 10.96-20.23 mg·kg-1 and the copper concentration in the range of 0.11-7,52 mg·kg-1. In bottled water and in bottled infant water, antimony was identified only in samples labeled 6a, 8a, 9a and 15a, all lead concentrations were measured below LODPb, copper was determined only in samples 2a, 6a and 8a. In none of the samples did the concentrations given by the valid legislation be exceeded. The limits of these metals are not set in legislation in the packaging materials, only specific migration limits and they have not been exceeded. However, the high concentration of antimony in PET poses a potential risk of contamination of the contents of these packages.
Effect of lead and antimony on the degradation of graphite shape in cast iron
Hlobil, Albert ; Kaňa, Václav (referee) ; Záděra, Antonín (advisor)
The bachelor thesis focuses on the effect of lead and antimony on the degradation of graphite in cast iron in relation to the lowered mechanical characteristics. This leads to the subsequent summary of the formation of degraded structures and unfavourable elements – the elements that are the cause of the formation. In the practical segment of the thesis, I will prove the effects of lead (or the combination of lead and antimony) on the degradation of graphite in cast iron with the focus lying at flake graphite. Furthermore, the thesis examines the mechanical characteristics and the attenuation of cast iron in relation to the formation of degraded graphite structures.
The study of vertical mobility of heavy metals and their transfer to mushrooms
Jurnečka, Roman ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of contamination of forest soils and edible mushrooms with lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in the Jeseníky Mountains, specifically in the Domašov and Vápenná forests. Sampling took place at 12 localities, divided into spruce and beech stands. Atomic absorption spectrometry AAS ContrAA 800D was chosen to determine the content of selected heavy metals. Based on the measured values of the concentrations of the studied metals and other soil properties, dependences were created to determine the vertical mobility of selected metals in the soil profile. Vertical mobility depends on the physico-chemical properties of the soil (pH, C and S content). The dependence of the content of selected heavy metals in the soil on the pH value of the soil was found. In the case of lead, the sorption capacity of the soil organic component was confirmed. The risk and above-limit content of Pb, Cd and Cu was found on the yellow-boletus mushroom. Cadmium shows the highest bioavailability. Lead was evaluated as the element with the lowest mobility.
Preparation of Thin Films by Electrochemical Methods
Kaválek, Ondřej ; Studničková, Marie (referee) ; Janderka, Pavel (referee) ; Sedlaříková, Marie (advisor)
The doctoral theses deal with electrochemical deposition of lead, tin, silicon and germanium from aprotic electrolytes in anhydrous inert atmosphere. Deposited layers are studied from the perspective of their surface and of electrochemical characteristics.
Study of organs of mice in inhalation experiments
Vrlíková, Lucie ; Diviš, Pavel (referee) ; Dočekal, Bohumil (advisor)
The diploma thesis is devoted to study potential risks for living organisms resulting from inhalation of nanoparticles of chosen heavy metals. The main aim of this work is the investigation of organs from experimental white mice after their guided inhalation of lead nanoparticles. The samples of liver and lungs from these animals are taken in time periods during the inhalation experiments and processed by specific methods for their evaluation. After pressurized microwave assisted decomposition of selected samples of mice organs in high purity concentrated nitric acid the content of lead is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. Furthermore, the changes are monitored using the microscopy of histological slides stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The results of both approaches are evaluated and compared within the frame of this work.
Modification of laboratory waste water containing lead
Mončeková, Miroslava ; Kábelová, Božena (referee) ; Pilátová, Ivana (advisor)
The Bachelor Thesis deals with the treatment of laboratory waste water containing lead. The thesis examines the lead and its compounds in waste water from an inorganic laboratory and tries to find a suitable way of stating the lead concentration and its follow-up reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of various substances used in precipitation of lead in waste water are considered. In conclusion the thesis emphasizes the economic effectiveness of the treatment of liquid waste into a solid waste.
Thick-film sensors for heavy metals detection
Gajdoš, Libor ; Majzlíková, Petra (referee) ; Prášek, Jan (advisor)
This project describes the possibilities of heavy metals detections in solutions using differential pulse voltammetry with tree-electrode electrochemical thick-film sensors. In the theoretical part, the thick-film technology is described as well as thick-film pastes’ types and compositions, followed by introduction to electrochemistry and electro-analytical methods of measurement. This project also describes the three measured heavy metals – cadmium, lead and copper. In the practical part, heavy metals’ ions detection in solutions using carbon working electrode and determination of the detection limit and sensitivity are described and discussed. Finally the evaluation of obtained results and results comparison to hygienic limits are included.

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