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Distribution of heavy metals in small urban streams
Hnaťuková, Petra
This Ph.D. thesis gives a study of distribution and mobility of heavy metals in small urban streams affected by urban drainage. Urban streams receive the discharge of overflows from the combined sewer system, which often causes changes in hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in stream. Such changes can induce redistribution and remobilization of heavy metals associated with the sediment. The theoretical part of the thesis characterizes heavy metals as specific pollutants, describes processes nad factors which can influence their mobility and distribution in aquatic environment. Furthermore it demonstrates an important role of sediments in heavy metal accumulation and briefly summarizes current legislation regulations regarding sediment management. Next capture describes a system of urban drainage in Prague, three urban streams in Prague - Botič, Rokytka a Kunratický stream, which were chosen as experimental catchments in respect to objectives of thesis and then natural conditions in their drainage area. With regard to accuracy, simplicity and laboratory equipment accessibility the methodology is compiled on the basis of current laboratory and analytical methods assay. Water quality is assessed and compared based on own and adopted monitoring in 2004-2005. Major industrial wastewater...
Distribution of heavy metals in small urban streams
Hnaťuková, Petra ; Benešová, Libuše (advisor) ; Komínková, Dana (referee) ; Zimová, Magdalena (referee)
Conclusion Combined sewer system significantly deteriorates water and sediment quality in urban streams studied. lmportant waste water producers of several industries are localized around Průmyslová streetin the catchmentarea of Botič and in Vysočany district in the catchment area of Rokýka. Therefore, Botič is affected mainly by Cu, Ni, Pb a Zn and Rokytka by Cd, Cu, Ni a Pb through the dischargeof CSOs in caseof rain and stormwater. Metal concentrations as well as evaluated environmental risk show significant increase due to discharge of CSOs in the longitudinal profile of streams affected by, urban drainage. Changes in distribution of Cu anď Zn to easílyavailable f|actionsrr.ereobservedin sedimentsof Botíč,which receives dischargefrom 33 CSOs. For copper it u'as proportionalincreaseof oxidizable fraction, for zink proportional increaseof exchangeble/carbonatefraction.The observedmobility order of the sir trace metals studied according to mobility factor was Cď > Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cr in sedimentsof Botičand Rokytka and Cd > Zn> Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr in sedimentsof Kunratický Stream. The analysis of heary metals loadings.geochemicaldistributionand other physicochemical parametershas enabled to identify specific areas of metal contamination. However, no statistically significant correlations between...
Adsorption of pesticides onto granular activated carbon in water treatment process
Kopecká, Ivana ; Hnaťuková, Petra (advisor) ; Pivokonský, Martin (referee)
The diploma thesis is aimed at adsorption processes during the removal of pesticides onto granular activated carbon (GAC) in the process of drinking water treatment. Adsorption onto GAC represents an efficient method for pesticides removal. High adsorption efficiency can be significantly reduced due to the occurrence of natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water, which involves AOM (Algal Organic Matter) produced by phytoplankton. Analogous to NOM, AOM probably affects adsorption of pesticides by two different mechanisms - a direct site competition and pore blockage effect, in dependence on the different molecular weight of particular AOM fractions. Equilibrium batch and kinetic adsorption experiments were performed using two types of GAC (Norit 1240 and Filtrasorb 400) and two pesticides (terbuthylazine and alachlor). In order to examine the effect of AOM on adsorption of pesticides, raw GAC and GAC preloaded by AOM were used. The effect of pH on the competitive adsorption of AOM was also evaluated. A solid phase extraction (SPE) method and gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) were used to determine pesticides in water samples. AOM was characterized using fractionation onto sorptive resins. The representation of apparent molecular weights of AOM proteins was determined by...
Removal of iron and manganese in water treatment process
Šafaříková, Jana ; Hnaťuková, Petra (advisor) ; Pivokonský, Martin (referee)
This diploma thesis is aimed at the evaluation of water treatment technology in Písty waterworks which treats raw water with high concentration of iron and manganese. The most common method of iron and manganese removal from raw water is based on oxidation to insoluble hydrated oxides followed by separation of formed aggregates. The plant technology consists of aeration, oxidation agent KMnO4 dosing and mixing, sedimentation, filtration and hygienic protection. Chemical analysis of treated water, evaluation of the aeration efficiency of iron and manganese oxidation, evaluation of the separation efficiency of the sedimentation tank and filters, assessment of distribution of iron and manganese in the filter, assessment of dirt holding capacity and optimization of KMnO4 dose were determined. Raw water pH fluctuated around 7,3 during measurements, whereas iron and manganese concentrations in raw water were 6,00 and 0,82 mg.l-1 , respectively. Oxidation of 97,2 % of dissolved iron and of 14,3 % of dissolved manganese was achieved after the aeration. The separation efficiency of the sedimentation tank was 82,9 % for iron and 46,5 % for manganese, however the separation efficiency of the second half of the sedimentation tank was low. Thus, the perforated baffles in the second half of the sedimentation...

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2 Hnaťuková, Petr
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