National Repository of Grey Literature 21 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Cardioprotection induced by changes in abiotic environmental factors
Kubátová, Hana ; Vybíral, Stanislav (advisor) ; Žurmanová, Jitka (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. Methods of limiting the ischemia-reperfusion injury, which occurs as a result of acute myocardial infarction (MI), have therefore been receiving significant attention. Preconditioning through ischemia application, cold exposure or physical exercise reduces the size of an infarction and the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. The exact mechanism behind this process has not yet been fully comprehended; nevertheless important roles are played by factors such as the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, the opening of ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP) and the prevention of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition pore (MPTP) opening. Chronic hypoxia and exercise have also been proven to have a cardioprotective effect, which is to be at least partially attributed to the intensified activity of antioxidant enzymes and the opening of KATP. During winter the risk of MI is increased for a wide range of patients. In winter swimmers, the stress caused by a cold stimulus is reduced. However, a mild stress is necessary to initiating cardioprotection. At present, there is unfortunately insufficient information available regarding the effects of long term cold adaptation on the size reduction of MI. Some studies suggest,...
Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function in rats adapted to hypoxia and exercise training
Hrdlička, Jaroslav ; Papoušek, František (advisor) ; Vybíral, Stanislav (referee)
- 4 - Abstract Adaptation to hypoxia or exercise training has cardioprotective effects against acute ischemic injury, but can potentially negatively influence heart function. Possible negative changes depend on the degree of hypoxia and exercise training intensity. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the effects of the specific adaptation protocols used. The ideal technique is echocardiography, which enables non-invasive, repeated and long-term measurements of the same individual allowing to study the development of changes in the course of adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selected protocols of adaptation to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (corresponding to the altitude of 4,000 to 8,000 meters above sea level, for 15 weeks in total) and exercise training (running speed 30 m.min-1 for 60 min a day, 4 weeks in total) on the left ventricle geometry and systolic function in rats. We assessed basic echocardiographic parameters of the ventricle geometry and function such as fractional shortening, ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output etc. The adaptation of rats to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia lead neither to the impairment of systolic function nor to the development of left ventricle hypertrophy compared to controls; signs of moderate hypertrophy were observed only...
Effect of stress on expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat brain
Kuželová, Andrea ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Vybíral, Stanislav (referee)
This thesis examines the influence of stress on the activity of hippocampal CA1 area. The main task was to determine whether the stress load affects the changes of the local metabolism of glucocorticoids, and whether the levels of corticosteroid receptors in the CA1 hippocampus are modulated in response to stress. In order to answer these questions, the experiments were carried out using three different rat strains - Fisher, Lewis and Wistar which differ in their activities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our results demonstrate that stress has no effect on expression of MR mRNA. Conversely, stress reduces the levels of GR mRNA in CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, we confirmed that the Lewis and Wistar rats didn't change metabolism of glucocorticoids after stress response. By the Fisher rats increased levels of 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression and therefore increased the metabolism of corticosterone.
Effect of stress on corticosteroid metabolism in peripheral tissues
Makal, Jakub ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Vybíral, Stanislav (referee)
Stressor influence can lead to homeostatic disruption. To eliminate this threat, mechanism which compensates negative effects of stressor was evolved by organisms. It's called stress response. One of two major systems that moderate stress response of organism is hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Effectors of the HPA axis are glucocorticoids, steroid hormones secreted from adrenal glands. Enzymes which metabolize glucocorticoids are located in target tissues for these hormones. They convert active glucocorticoids into their inactive forms, or vice versa. Untill now, two such enzymes have been described - 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and type 2. It was proved that expression and activity of these enzymes can change under the influence of stressor. These changes are tissue-specific and dependent on type of applied stressor.
Characterization of CART peptide analogs in vitro and in vivo
Nagelová, Veronika ; Maletínská, Lenka (advisor) ; Vybíral, Stanislav (referee)
Peptide CART (cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript) is a neuropeptide acting in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake (anorexigenic peptide). Despite all efforts the receptor and the mechanism of action is still unknown. This peptide has two biologically active forms, CART(55-102) and CART(61-102). Peptide CART is able to bind to pheochromocytoma cells PC12. PC12 cells differentiated in neuronal phenotype with NGF (nerve growth factor) showed a higher number of binding sites (11250 ± 2520 binding sites/cell) compared to undifferentiated cells (3600 ± 570 binding sites/cell). PC12 cells differentiated by dexamethasone to chromaffin cells showed high non-specific binding. Peptide CART contains three disulfide bridges. To clarify the importance of each disulfide bridge to maintain biological activity, analogues with one (analogue 3, 4 and 5) or two (2, 6, 7 and 8) disulfide bridges and a peptide analogue of CART (61-102), which has methionin at position 67 replaced with norleucine were synthesized. We showed that biological activity was unchanged at analogue 1 and analogue 7 containing disulfide bridges in positions 74-94 and 88-101. When investigating cell signaling in PC12 cells, we tested if peptide CART activate of c-Fos, c-Jun, phosphorylated ERK1/2, CREB, JNK and p38. CART peptide...

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