National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
A Macroeconomic Forecasting Model of the fixed exchange rate regime for the oil-rich Kazakh economy
Hlédik, Tibor ; Musil, Karel ; Ryšánek, Jakub ; Tonner, Jaromír
This paper presents a semi-structural quarterly projection open-economy model for analyzing monetary policy transmission and macroeconomic developments in Kazakhstan during the period of the fixed exchange rate regime. The model captures key stylized facts of the Kazakh economy, especially the important role of oil prices in influencing the economic cycle in Kazakhstan. The application of the model to observed data provides a reasonable interpretation of Kazakh economic history, including the global crisis, through to late 2015, when the National Bank of Kazakhstan introduced a managed float. The dynamic properties of the model are analyzed using impulse response functions for selected country-specific shocks. The model’s shock decomposition and in-sample forecasting properties presented in the paper suggest that the model was an applicable tool for monetary policy analysis and practical forecasting at the National Bank of Kazakhstan. In a general sense, the model can be considered an example of a quarterly projection model for oil-rich countries with a fixed exchange rate.
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The Dynamic CGE Model and Analysis of Impacts of Environmental Policy
Píša, Vítězslav ; Brůha, Jan (advisor) ; Tonner, Jaromir (referee) ; Smeets Křístková, Zuzana (referee)
The thesis evaluates three revenue neutral mixes of political measures aimed at the support of utilization of biofuels in the Czech Republic. The dynamic computable general equilibrium model with three aggregated sectors and two types of households is applied for evaluation of relevant environmental and economic impacts. The hypothetic price subsidy of utilization of energy biomass in production of the first generation biofuels fulfilling sustainability criteria is chosen as the basic supportive tool. The revenue neutrality is satisfied via adequate increase in tax rates in three different alternative scenarios (via labor tax, motor fuel tax, and standard value added tax). The results indicate that at the current price level of crude oil even relatively high level of price subsidy is not sufficient in fulfilling the emission and biofuel share targets presumed by European Commission. Therefore, for attaining the biofuel share target high percentage first generation biofuels and second and third generation biofuels have to be utilized. Furthermore, for the fulfilling of emission targets other alternative fuels have to be utilized as well. The results finally reveal that environmentally most efficient mix is the price subsidy compensated via an increase in the motor fuel tax, economically most...
Overcomplete Mathematical Models with Applications
Tonner, Jaromír ; Witkovský,, Viktor (referee) ; Martišek, Dalibor (referee) ; Rajmic, Pavel (referee) ; Veselý, Vítězslav (advisor)
Chen, Donoho a Saunders (1998) studují problematiku hledání řídké reprezentace vektorů (signálů) s použitím speciálních přeurčených systémů vektorů vyplňujících prostor signálu. Takovéto systémy (někdy jsou také nazývány frejmy) jsou typicky vytvořeny buď rozšířením existující báze, nebo sloučením různých bazí. Narozdíl od vektorů, které tvoří konečně rozměrné prostory, může být problém formulován i obecněji v rámci nekonečně rozměrných separabilních Hilbertových prostorů (Veselý, 2002b; Christensen, 2003). Tento funkcionální přístup nám umožňuje nacházet v těchto prostorech přesnější reprezentace objektů, které, na rozdíl od vektorů, nejsou diskrétní. V této disertační práci se zabývám hledáním řídkých representací v přeurčených modelech časových řad náhodných veličin s konečnými druhými momenty. Numerická studie zachycuje výhody a omezení tohoto přístupu aplikovaného na zobecněné lineární modely a na vícerozměrné ARMA modely. Analýzou mnoha numerických simulací i modelů reálných procesů můžeme říci, že tyto metody spolehlivě identifikují parametry blízké nule, a tak nám umožňují redukovat původně špatně podmíněný přeparametrizovaný model. Tímto významně redukují počet odhadovaných parametrů. V konečném důsledku se tak nemusíme starat o řády modelů, jejichž zjišťování je většinou předběžným krokem standardních technik. Pro kratší časové řady (100 a méně vzorků) řídké odhady dávají lepší predikce v porovnání s těmi, které jsou založené na standardních metodách (např. maximální věrohodnosti v MATLABu - MATLAB System Identification Toolbox (IDENT)). Pro delší časové řady (500 a více) obě techniky dávají v podstatě stejně přesné predikce. Na druhou stranu řešení těchto problémů je náročnější, a to i časově, nicméně výpočetní doba je stále přijatelná.
Labour Market Modelling within a DSGE Approach
Tonner, Jaromír ; Tvrz, Stanislav ; Vašíček, Osvald
The goal of this paper is to find a suitable way of modelling the main labour market variables in the framework of the CNB’s core DSGE model. The model selection criteria are: the predictive ability for unemployment, the change in the overall predictive ability in comparison to the baseline model and the extent of the required model change. We find that the incorporation of a modified Galí, Smets and Wouters (2011) labour market specification allows us to predict unemployment with an acceptable forecast error. At the same time it leads to a moderate improvement in the overall predictive ability of the model and requires only minor adjustments to the model structure. Thus, it should be preferred to more complicated concepts that yield a similar improvement in predictive ability. We also came to the conclusion that the concept linking unemployment and the GDP gap is promising. However, its practical application would require (additional) improvement in the accuracy of the consumption prediction. As a practical experiment, we compare the inflation pressures arising from nominal wages and the exchange rate in the baseline model and in alternative specifications. The experiment is motivated by the use of the exchange rate as an additional monetary policy instrument by the CNB since November 2013 in an environment of near-zero interest rates and growing disinflationary pressures. We find that the baseline model tends to forecast higher nominal wage growth and lower exchange rate depreciation than the models with more elaborate labour markets. Therefore, the alternative models would probably have identified an even higher need for exchange rate depreciation than the baseline model did.
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The Czech Housing Market Through the Lens of a DSGE Model Containing Collateral-Constrained Households
Tonner, Jaromír ; Brůha, Jan
We incorporate a housing market with liquidity-constrained households into the Czech National Bank’s core forecasting model (g3) to analyze the relationship between housing market and aggregate fluctuations in a small open economy framework. We discuss the historical shock decomposition of house prices and interpret the results in the light of recent empirical work. For a wide range of model calibrations, the interaction between the housing market and the aggregate economy is weak and so the monetary policy implications of house price fluctuations for the Czech Republic are not strong. We interpret this – in line with recent empirical evidence – as an indication that the wealth effects stemming from house ownership are not significant in the Czech Republic. Nevertheless, we show that the collateral mechanism significantly improves the forecasting properties of the extended model, especially for private consumption. This indicates the importance of the collateral effect, which can be caused by assets other than houses.
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Incorporating Judgments and Dealing with Data Uncertainty in Forecasting at the Czech National Bank
Brůha, Jan ; Hlédik, Tibor ; Holub, Tomáš ; Polanský, Jiří ; Tonner, Jaromír
This paper focuses on the forecasting process at the Czech National Bank with an empha- sis on incorporating expert judgments into forecasts and addressing data uncertainty. At the beginning, the core model and the forecasting process are described and it is presented how data and the underlying uncertainty are handled. The core of the paper contains five case studies, which reflect policy issues addressed during forecasting rounds since 2008. Each case study first describes a particular forecasting problem, then the way how the issue was addressed, and finally the effect of incorporating off-model information into the forecast is briefly summarized. The case studies demonstrate that a careful incor- poration of expert information into a structural framework may be useful for generating economically intuitive forecasts even during very turbulent times, and we show that such judgements may have important monetary policy implications.
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Monetary policy implications of financial frictions in the Czech republic
Ryšánek, Jakub ; Tonner, Jaromír ; Vašíček, Osvald
As the global economy seems to be recovering from the 2009 financial crisis, we find it desirable to look back and analyze the Czech economy ex post. We work with a Swedish New Keynesian model of a small open economy which embeds financial frictions in light of the financial accelerator literature.
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6 Tonner, Jaromír
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