National Repository of Grey Literature 20 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Double taxation treaties with particular regard to the concept of a permanent establishment
Kubeš, Jan ; Vybíral, Roman (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
01 Double tax treaties aim to prevent double taxation. Double taxation of income is an undesirable phenomenon from the taxpayers' point of view. The most widespread way of preventing it is through bilateral agreements concluded between states under the OECD Model Agreement. In general, a prerequisite of taxation is either tax residency or the existence of a permanent establishment, which can take various forms. Double taxation treaties and the concept of a permanent establishment in which this master thesis is dedicated, have undergone a dynamic transformation over the past few years due to both Base Erosion and Profit Shifting reports (BEPS) and the Multilateral Instrument by OECD (MLI). This transformation is demonstrated in this thesis by comparing selected provisions of the OECD Model Agreement 2014 and 2017. This thesis addresses the current question of whether the current development of tax treaties is to avoid double taxation or avoid double non-taxation and artificial tax reduction. Double tax treaties, as practice shows, fulfill their traditional role. The first chapter deals with the system of national and international taxation in general. The second chapter deals with the issue of double taxation, methods of its avoidance and comparison of versions of the OECD Model Agreement 2014 and 2017. The...
The comparison of personal income tax in the Czech Republic and France
Šodková, Karolína ; Vybíral, Roman (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
- The comparison of personal income tax in the Czech Republic and France The diploma thesis deals with a comparison of personal income tax in the Czech Republic and France. The thesis comprises of analysis of both countries' national legislations and of subsequent comparison of the impact of legal tax rules on the tax liability of natural persons. The focus is aimed mainly on the key differences between the compared legislations with respect to the income from employment of taxable persons. The diploma thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter, called Taxation in the theoretical sphere, is dedicated to the definition of personal income tax, categorization of the tax itself and legal sources, which determines the personal income tax in both legislations being compared. The object of the second chapter is comparison of the tax constituents of personal income tax in both legislations and their application within determination of taxpayer's liabilities. The chapter three is focused on selected tax constituents of personal income tax in the Czech Republic, while aiming to address mainly income from employment of Czech taxpayer, and also the tax constituents affecting the taxable income base and the final tax liability. The fourth chapter, being called Selected components of personal income...
Legal aspects of the fight against tax evasion
Do Thai, Quang ; Vybíral, Roman (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
This thesis deals with the legal aspects of the fight against tax evasion with a particular focus on current legal instruments within the Czech legal order. The thesis is divided into five parts. The first part of the thesis defines the concept of tax evasion, compares the concepts of tax avoidance and tax evasion in the foreign literature. The term tax evasion does not have a legal definition in the Czech legal order and different views of the meaning of this term can be found. This thesis works with tax evasion as an illegal arrangement aiming at minimizing one's tax liability, as well as acting towards circumventing tax legislation. The second part also summarizes the knowledge about BEPS and its influence on the state budget, competition and society. The third part is devoted to selected specific legal instruments in the fight against BEPS, namely the institute of abuse of law, transfer pricing rules, low capitalization, international cooperation and double tax treaties. These tools are described in detail and their current form is analyzed. The work also expresses the author's personal opinion on these tools, which he considers to be very conservative. Similarly, the instruments introduced into the Czech legal system with the implementation of the ATAD Directive are analyzed. The last part of...
Legal regulation of consumer credit in the Czech republic
Stróžik, Lukáš ; Kohajda, Michael (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
Legal regulation of consumer credit in the Czech republic Abstract This diploma thesis deals with the topic of consumer credit distribution in the Czech Republic. Recently, the European level of regulation of the provision and intermediation of consumer credit has undergone a major change. In connection with that also individual Member States had to transpose the revolutionary Directive 2014/17/EU which extends consumer protection to loans concerning real estate. This was executed in the Czech Republic by the adoption of the Act No. 257/2016 Sb., which came into effect on 1 December 2016. The paper is divided into four parts, in which the author describes and evaluates the current state of consumer credit distribution regulation. For this purpose, the provisions of the Act and their interpretation using accompanying documents are subject to analysis and evaluation of their conformity with the objectives of the regulation. The first part describes the historical context and development of consumer credit from the beginnings of the western civilization to the present state, focusing on the European Union as the originator of our national consumer credit legislation. The second part is devoted to general aspects of consumer credit provision, especially the scope of the Consumer Credit Act and other general...
Financial market and its legal aspects
Špaček, Tomáš ; Kotáb, Petr (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
The master's thesis on the topic of financial market and its legal aspects aims to analyse the weaknesses in the legal regulation of markets in financial instruments. The thesis is divided into six chapters, introduction and conclusion. The chapters are divided into subchapters. The first chapter defines the financial market and deals with its divisions. Since the legal aspects of financial market are a traditional subject of the study of financial law, the basic concepts of this field are notoriously well known. The first chapter therefore describes only the basic division that is applied to the financial markets. It then goes on to compare existing definition of the financial markets that can be found in academic literature. The second chapter discusses the capital market participants. As certain concepts of financial market might suggest, many different persons might fall into the category of market participants. This chapter, however, discusses selected persons who provide their services on the market in financial instruments. It focuses mainly on investment firm because it provides investors with access to the capital market. The third chapter discusses financial instruments. The fourth chapter concerns investment services that can be provided in relation to financial instruments. The fifth chapter...
The Legal Regulation of Banking Activities
Martinů, Katrin ; Kotáb, Petr (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
The Legal Regulation of Banking Activities Abstract The subject of this diploma thesis is the legal regulation of the activities of banks. Emphasis is placed on newly regulated areas and topical areas in respect to legislative changes. The primary aim of the thesis is to analyse areas related to the activities of banks and to assess the suitability and sufficiency or redundancy of the legal regulation of the selected areas in terms of the scope and depth of regulation. In this context, the work is complemented by proposals de lege ferenda. The first section is devoted to the subjects of banking regulation. Within this part, the term "bank" is defined, including the assessment of online banks. After that, supervisors, namely the Czech National Bank and the European Banking Authority, are presented together with an outline of their functions. The following section covers the general basis of the regulation of bank activities. The sources of regulation are described, and the objectives and reasons for and against regulation are outlined. A description of processes for entering and exiting the banking sector are included, with a more detailed analysis of procedures for obtaining a banking license. The third section contains an analysis of the selected obligations of banks arising from the legislation regulating...
International double taxation
Řezníčková, Markéta ; Kotáb, Petr (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with some questions of the international double taxation, particularly with the basic terminology and principles of the international taxation, bilateral double taxation treaties and new tools of legal regulation of the international double taxation such as BEPS, MLI, a package of European directions called Anti-BEPS and its implementation into the Czech law. The aim of this thesis is to identify, describe and analyse sectional questions in respect to long-term and current evolution. In the introduction I briefly introduce the topic. Afterwards the thesis is divided into four chapters that are linked to each other. The first chapter presents to the reader basic terminology and explains basic principles of this field independently and in relation to current legal regulation. Further I describe the types of double taxation and other institutes related to the international double taxation such as international double non-taxation. The second chapter deals with means of elimination of the international double taxation. Two basic methods are described and some of them are represented by basic examples. There are also described means of elimination of the international double taxation that can only be used in tax treaties (not in the national law). The last subchapter describes...
The Regulatory Landscape and Market Overview of Insurance Agents and Brokers in the Czech Republic
Veselský, Štěpán ; Vybíral, Roman (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
This MA thesis is concerned with insurance distribution in the Czech Republic. It aims to acquaint the reader with individual distribution channels within the context of current and upcoming regulatory framework. Regarding methodology, it makes use of the descriptive, analytical and empirical approach to legal research. The first chapter, The Insurance Market, introduces the gross written premium as the key metric in the insurance industry and it segments the written premium into the main product lines. Further, it deals with sources that will be relied on throughout the thesis and presents the necessary terminology. The second chapter outlines the distribution channels framework through which the insurance products are sold to customers. From the perspective of an insurance undertaking the main distinction is on the internal and external channels. The legal categories of intermediaries and the methods of communication with the customer do not form any particular channel, instead they are understood as cross-channel. The MA thesis is submitted in the period when the applicable Intermediaries Act is about to be superseded by the forthcoming Insurance Distribution Act. That is reflected in the third chapter that is divided into two subchapters, each dedicated to the analysis of the distribution...
The analysis oh the legal regulation of transfer pricing in connection with the implementation of ATAD
Zedníková, Kateřina ; Boháč, Radim (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
The analysis of the legal regulation of transfer pricing in connection with the implementation of ATAD Abstract This diploma thesis deals with the topic of legal regulation of transfer prices. Considering the gradual globalization and the increasing number of multinational enterprises, transfer pricing is a very extensively discussed tax-related topic. It has become even more topical with the implementation of a new Council Directive (EU) 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016 laying down rules against tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market. Transposition period for the majority of regulations presented in the directive is scheduled to 31 December 2018. The aim of the present thesis is to characterize the current state of legal regulations of transfer pricing in the Czech Republic as well as related supranational regulations. Within the context of the former and the latter, the thesis analyzes the options of the implementation of the Council Directive (EU) 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016 laying down rules against tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market. Also, the thesis delineates and describes the approach of the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic, including an assumed financial impact of the implementation of individual...
Review statement and reverse charge in the VAT legal regime
Flaška, Petr ; Boháč, Radim (advisor) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
In my thesis I first explain taxes as a general institute, including their history. For better understanding of the following text I point out the progressive development of the berthing system. State apparatus with a growing social system comes with constantly higher and especially more detailed tax collection system. Countries, due to the need of implementing their budgets, must punish tax evasion and fight dishonesty in business to enable more capable and more honest entrepreneurs to compete with each other and therefore not to support incompetent, dishonest, and increasingly "cheekier" subjects who periodically do not pay their taxes in full. In my thesis, I also assess the complexity of the added value tax system in my country and the different rates that give room for dishonesty and new and frequent amendments to the Added Value Tax Act. I consider the control reports as a necessary and much needed institute. However, although the very first possible rating results of the Ministry of Finance data do seem to be positive, they also, in my opinion, underestimate the yields. I've come to the conclusion that the institute of the control reports from the point of view of constitutionality is not unlawful, and so I differ with the opinions of the deputies and the senators that this is a similar case...

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