National Repository of Grey Literature 2 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Karyotype evolution of the family Araneidae
Pajpach, Filip ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Sember, Alexandr (referee)
Orb-weavers (Araneidae) are a diversified spider family comprising more than 3,100 species in more than 170 genera. Together with 13 other families, they con- stitute to superfamily Araneoidea. The presented thesis focuses on karyotype evo- lution of Araneidae, including its comparison with a related family Tetragnathidae. The results obtained from 19 araneid and four tetragnathid species confirm previ- ously postulated hypothesis that the ancestral karyotype of Araneoidea (including Araneidae) consists of 24 acrocentric chromosomes in males, including two acro- centric X chromosomes of system X1X20. However, there is a tendency of 2n decrease in some araneids due to centric fusions. In these cases, centric fusions affected most autosomes (and sometimes gonosomes as well); number of chromosome pairs de- creased from 11 to six. Three independent reduction events were detected in this thesis. Furthermore, pattern of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was studied in this thesis using fluorescent in situ hybridization, since data on evolution of this marker are scarce in spiders. Striking variability in NORs number was discovered, ranging from one to 13 loci. Remarkably, multiple centric fusions were always ac- companied by considerable increase of NORs number. In araneids and tetragnathids possessing...
Molecular composition of constitutive heterochromatin
Pajpach, Filip ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Holá, Dana (referee)
Constitutive heterochromatin of eukaryotes includes various types of repetitive DNA and transposons characteristic for given region. DNA of centromeric and telomeric re- gions is usually highly methylated and transcribed to RNA transcripts, which participate in formation, functions and spreading of heterochromatin along with histones, their mod- ifications and non-histone proteins. The most typical histone modification in heterochro- matin is methylation, which forms the binding site for protein HP1. This protein (and his paralogues in other eukaryotes except for S. cerevisiae) participates in formation of com- plexes including other proteins like histone methylases SUV39H and their paralogues. Es- sential are also telosome proteins regulating telomeric heterochromatin, Polycomb group proteins and many others, for instance MBD1, Epe1, SUMO and DNA methylases DNMT. Many proteins form complexes, which partake in mechanisms necessary for heterochro- matin maintenance, for example RDRC and RITS complexes in RNA interference, SHREC complex in heterochromatin spreading, and PRC complexes forming heterochromatin in specific situations. Key words: centromere, DNA, histone, HP1, constitutive heterochromatin, methylation, modification, protein, RNA, specific, telomere

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