National Repository of Grey Literature 30 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
In vitro screening of novel potentially active antibacterial compounds II
Zbořilová, Eliška ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Vejsová, Marcela (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist on Laboratory Methods Author: Bc. Eliška Zbořilová Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro screening of novel potentially active antibacterial compounds II Key words: antibiotics, bacteria, resistance, minimal inhibitory concentration, bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics This diploma thesis deals with testing of the efficacy of new antimicrobial agents on selected representative bacteria. The work consists of a theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical part includes the history and the present of antibiotics describing current issues and the layout of the antibiotic policy in the Czech Republic and in the world. It deals with the characteristics of drugs, below which are described their importance, division, effects, resistance. Furthermore, this part of work describes detailed mechanism of action for two selected groups of compounds. Last but not least, this work portrays the methods that are used to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics. The practical part deals with the description of the whole work process, including the characteristics of used bacterial strains and the list of tested substances....
In vitro susceptibility of potentially pathogenic fungi isolated in the University Hospital Hradec Králové to antifungal drugs.
Hejkrlíková, Eva ; Jílek, Petr (advisor) ; Janďourek, Ondřej (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Author: Eva Hejkrlíková Supervisor: PharmDr. Petr Jílek, CSc. Supervisor specialist: doc. RNDr. Vladimír Buchta, CSc. Title of master's thesis: In vitro susceptibility of potentially pathogenic fungi isolated in the University Hospital Hradec Králové to antifungal drugs Subtitle: Blood cultures tested from 2008 to 2018 Background: The aim of the work was to describe and evaluate epidemiological situation of fungemia in the University Hospital Hradec Králové (FNHK) from 2008 to 2018, focusing on in vitro susceptibility of blood isolates to antifungals. Methods: Required data were obtained from the laboratory information system of the De- partment of Clinical Microbiology FNHK and processed using Microsoft Excel program. Results: From January 2008 to December 2018, fungemia was identified in 231 patients with overall incidence of 0.51 cases per 1000 admissions. Candida albicans accounted for most cases (52.8 %) followed by C. glabrata (14.7 %), C. tropicalis (8.2 %) and C. parapsilosis (6.9 %). C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis susceptibility to echinocandins, as determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration, was 100 %, in 2 cases C. glabrata was resistant to anidulafungin...
In vitro screening of potential antimycobacterial compounds against fast growing strains of Mycobacterium genus II
Pchálková, Tereza ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist on Laboratory Methods Author: Bc. Tereza Pchálková Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro screening of potential antimycobacterial compounds active against fast growing strains of Mycobacterium genus II Key words: Mycobacteria, Tuberculosis, Antituberculotics, Microdilution broth method, Minimum inhibition concentration Background: The aim of this diploma thesis has been screening of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of novel compounds against fast growing strains of the genus Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium aurum). Another aim has been predicting the structure-activity relationships for tested compounds. Methods: The technique used for activity determination was microdilution broth method. The value of minimum inhibition concentration for each compound was determined. The evaluation was performed visually and spectrophotometrically using the Alamar blue indicator. Results: A total of 79 compounds were tested. 22 tested compounds showed significant activity against mycobacteria. The substances were sorted according to the similarity in chemical structure into 10 groups. From a chemical point of view, these...
Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds
Suk, Ondřej ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Janďourek, Ondřej (referee)
Author: Ondřej Suk Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds Diploma thesis Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Study program: Pharmacy Background: The aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of newly proposed and prepared quaternary ammonium salts. Methods: Broth microdilution method was used to measure antimicrobial activity of 8 new substances divided into three structure groups on 8 bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia bercovieri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL positive and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Out of the 3 structure groups, the highest antimicrobial potential was found with some methylmorpholine salts and benzylimidazole substituted salts. Generally, the substances were, as supposed, more efficient with the Gram-positive bacteria tribes than with the Gram-negative ones. No bactericidal effect of these substances in the concentration measured was found on the strain of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The Gram-positive strains tested are more sensitive towards the tested substances than the Gram-negative ones. In comparison with some...
In vitro screening of novel potentially active antimycotic compounds III
Janků, Aneta ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Konečná, Klára (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist in Laboratory Methods Candidate: Bc. Aneta Janků Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro screening of novel potentially active antimycotic compounds III Key words: yeasts, moulds, antimycotics, mechanism of action of polyenes, microdilution broth method, MIC - minimal inhibition concentration. The main topic of this diploma thesis is in vitro screening of new, potentially active antifungal compounds. The introductory chapter in the theoretical part of the work is devoted to the epidemiology of fungal infections. The classification of micromycetes and the characteristics of the fungal eukaryotic cell are given below, focusing on composition of the plasma membrane and the cell wall. A separate chapter also deals with specific species of fungi and the diseases they cause. The main topic is drugs from the group of antifungals, where more attention is focused on polyene antifungals, their mechanism of action in detail and the emergence of resistance. An integral part are also the stages of development of new drugs and a list of novels developing antifungals. The final chapter describes the types of methods designed for in vitro evaluation...
In vitro screening of novel potentially active antibacterial compounds III
Vízková, Marcela ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Voxová, Barbora (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist on Laboratory Methods Autor: Bc. Marcela Vízková Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title: In vitro screening of novel potentially active antibacterial compounds III Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have become part of modern therapeutic approaches. But the global spread of resistance makes their future uncertain. It is necessary to find new antibacterial substances useful in practice. As resistance is a global threat, the theoretical part deals with this issue. In addition to resistance, the theoretical part also briefly describes the antibiotics used, including new antibiotics, which were recently registered or likely to be registered. For selected groups, their mechanism of action is described in detail. Sensitivity should be determined to correctly indicate the antibiotic treatment. For this reason, the theoretical part also describes methods by which the sensitivity of a microbe to an antibiotic can be determined qualitatively or quantitatively. The theoretical part does not neglect the history of the development of antibacterial substances and familiarization with antibiotic policy in the Czech Republic. This diploma thesis is based on...
Advanced methods of antimicrobial activity screening
Dolinská, Dagmar ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Konečná, Klára (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Dagmar Dolinská Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Work title: Advanced methods for testing antimicrobial activity Goal: The aim of the work in the theoretical part was to summarize methods of antimicrobial screening focusing on antimycotics and in the practical part to evaluate the antifungal activity of 47 tested substances using the microdilution broth method. Methods: The substances were tested using quantitative microdilution broth method on eight strains of yeast and fibrous fungi. These were Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Absidia corymbifera and Trichophyton interdigitale. Results: The highest antimycotic activity was demonstrated by compound Ac-0a, where we recorded after 24 hours of incubation activity against all eight strains. However, it was not able to stop the growth of three strains after 48 hours of incubation, the strains concerned were Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Other samples which have shown activity were Cl-2, where activity was observed for Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton interdigitale strains, Cl-3 for...
In vitro screening of novel potentially active antimycotic compounds II
Comová, Kateřina ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Konečná, Klára (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Specialist in Laboratory Methods Candidate: Bc. Kateřina Comová Supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro screening of novel potentially active antimycotic compounds II Key words: yeasts, fungi, antimycotics, resistance, microdilution broth metod, minimal inhibition concentration. The main focus of this thesis is on antifungal resistance and the mechanism of action of selected antifungal agents. The theoretical part of the thesis gives a general overview of the characteristics of microscopic fungi and the diseases they cause. Attention is also paid to antifungal agents that are commonly used in the treatment of fungal infections, as well as those that are currently at various stages of clinical trials. This ties in with the mechanism of action of these compounds, which is also described here. The theoretical part also summarizes the development and principles of antifungal resistance. The theoretical part concludes with the description of the methods used in the determination of in vitro susceptibility of fungal agents to antifungals. The practical part of the thesis describes the procedure of the quantitative broth microdilution method, which...
Sensitivity testing of vankomycin resistant and vancomycin sensitive enteroccoci on selected biocides
Malíková, Martina ; Janďourek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Voxová, Barbora (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Study program: Healthcare bioanalytics Candidate: Martina Malíková Thesis supervisor: PharmDr. Ondřej Janďourek, Ph.D. Consultant: RNDr. Irena Hanovcová, CSc. Title of bachelor thesis: Testing the sensitivity of vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-sensitive enterococci on selected biocides Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this work was to determine the sensitivity of vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-sensitive enterococci to selected biocides, which are part of disinfection programs in healthcare facilities. When testing the effectiveness of disinfectants, we followed the Czech technical standard ČSN EN 1040 - Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics - Quantitative suspension test to determine the basic bactericidal effect of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics - Test method and requirements (Phase 1). We used a dilution method with a neutralizer. We tested a total of 10 Enterococcus faecium strains. Four out of the 13 biocides tested were completely effective. These were agents with a higher concentration of aldehydes, with peracetic acid and active chlorine. We observed different efficacy in individual strains for...
Listeria sp.
Králíková, Lenka ; Vejsová, Marcela (advisor) ; Janďourek, Ondřej (referee)
Author: Lenka Králíková Title: Listeria spp. Bachelor thesis Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hradec Králové Field of study: Medical Labolatory Background: The bachelor thesis aims to describe Listeria spp. Describe the division of genus, morphology and laboratory diagnostics. More attention is paid to Listeria monocytogenes as it is a major source of infection in humans. Another aim is to describe the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in food, its antigenic structure, pathogenesis and the disease it causes. Main findings: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium present everywhere. It was found in fresh water, clay, plant material and waste water. The main source of infection for humans is contaminated food. They are most often found in unpasteurized milk, matured cheeses or poorly cooked meat or vegetables. Bacteria causes a disease called listeriosis, which is especially dangerous for newborns, elderly people, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. The disease occurs rather sporadically. There was confirmed from 30 to 37 cases per year in the Czech Republic between years 2008-2017. There was also an epidemic in Africa in 2017-2018, it was the largest epidemic in the world. In the event of infection, both the laboratory and the physician are obliged to report the positivity...

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