National Repository of Grey Literature 174 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Donation mortis causa
Drachovský, Ondřej ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee)
Donation mortis causa Abstract Inheritance law, in its broader concept donation mortis causa falls, is being referred to as the hearth of civil law since it interconnects both proprietary (contractual) and personal (family) aspects. Czech civil law recodification meant significant change of inheritance law legislation, including renaissance of wide range of legal institutions including donation mortis causa. This thesis aims to comprehensively and critically assess legal regulation of donation mortis causa in the Czech Civil Code. The emphasis is primarily put on problematic aspects of this regulation. The submitted thesis endeavours to find answer to the question of practical usability of the donation mortis causa. Its author attempts to provide a reasonable interpretation of provisions of lex lata concerning the subject matter of this thesis. The solution of the most serious legislative problems is proposed within the summary of the submitted text. As for the structure, this diploma thesis is divided into six parts, with each part being split in chapters and sub-chapters. The first part depicts the genesis and further evolution of the legal institution of donation mortis causa. The second part defines the terms fundamental for the thesis. This part also includes the answer to the ancient question, how to...
Legal aspects of artificial intelligence, augumented reality and virtual reality in medicine
Stieranková, Aneta ; Frinta, Ondřej (advisor) ; Salač, Josef (referee)
Title: Legal aspects of artificial intelligence, augmented reality and virtual reality in medicine The thesis deals with selected legal problems that arise in connection with the use of artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality in medicine. The introduction defines what these relatively new terms mean and what is their use in the field of medicine. Furthermore, it deals with the legal nature of these technologies, i.e. why are they a thing in legal sense, how they meet the definition of a product, and that under certain conditions they can also be considered medical devices. The next part is devoted to patients' rights and obligations in connection with the use of artificial intelligence and virtual and augmented reality in the provision of health services. In particular, it is stressed that under certain circumstances the health service provider will be obliged to communicate that a particular technology is used in patient care. It also explains why patients today cannot regard the use of these technologies as their right which can be claimed. Finally, patients may refuse the use of these technologies in certain situations. The second major legal problem that is addressed in the context of the use of artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality in medicine is the obligation...
Legal Status of Unborn Child and Need of Its Protection in the Light of Biomedical Development
Urminská, Lucie ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee)
Thesis deals with the legal status of an unborn child within current Czech legislation. In the introductory part, the author attempts to clarify the way in which today's society perceives the value of human life before birth. The author looks at the moment of when life begins from different points of view and also observes artificial interferences with the prenatal development of the child, which are the phenomenon accompanying the development in human knowledge and the use of biomedical technologies. In that context, the author analyses position of the European Court of Human Rights to the issue of the beginning of human life through its decisions. The core theme of the thesis is the analysis of the legal status of unborn child in the Czech Republic and of the protection granted by international and national legislation to the unborn child. The author particularly focuses on private law by examining the relevant provisions of the Act No. 89/2012 Coll., the Civil Code, as amended, which determine the legal status of the nasciturus. Among the crucial institutes to which attention is paid belongs legal personality, legal capacity, but also, for example, legal representation of the nasciturus. Further, the rights and the duties of the nasciturus are discussed, giving more detailed attention to the...
Acquisition of the property right from an unauthorized person
Cmíralová, Natálie ; Thöndel, Alexandr (advisor) ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee)
The diploma thesis deals with the topic of acquisition of the property right from an unauthorized person, representing an exception to the Roman law principle nemo plus iuris ad alium transferre potest quam ipse habet, which means that no one can transfer more rights to another than he or she has. Acquisition of the property right from an authorized person represents one of the original ways of acquiring the property right, which significantly infringes on constitutionally guaranteed property right. For this reason, it is necessary to subject the legal regulation of acquisition of the property right from an unauthorized person to closer and critical examination and to assessment whether it complies with European standards of legal regulation of acquisition of the property right from an unauthorized person and whether it satisfies the reproaches aimed at previous legal regulation of acquisition of the property right from an unauthorized person, all after nearly six years after the recodification of private law in the Czech Republic. The diploma thesis in its five chapters presents to the reader a presentation of the nature of rights in rem and property right, historical grounds of the acquisition of the property right from an unauthorized person, a thorough analysis of current Czech legal...
Legal regulation of natural persons in the General Civil Code and in the current Civil Code
Stromšík, Jakub ; Kuklík, Jan (advisor) ; Gábriš, Tomáš (referee) ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee)
Legal regulation of natural persons in the Civil Code of Austria and in the current Civil Code of the Czech Republic Abstract This dissertation thesis brings a comprehensive historical perspective on the development of the concept of a person in the legal sense in the territory of the Czech lands. A great part of the thesis deals with the philosophical definition of this term and examines the natural legal bases of this issue. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of the legal regulation of natural persons in the Civil Code of Austria (ABGB) which was enacted in 1811 and the Czech Civil Code from 2012. The authors of the new Civil Code designate as the ideological source of the recodification the draft of the Czechoslovak Civil Code from 1937, which was de facto modern revision of the ABGB, so it is important to take into account the relevant ABGB provisions when interpreting the new Civil Code. It is also important to take into account the historical origins of these provisions, while also examining how their interpretation has evolved over time. In this dissertation thesis there is also quite a large space devoted to the issue of personality protection. Some of the most important provisions of the new Czech Civil Code and the Civil Code of Austria are again compared. Great attention is paid to the...
Discharge of debts of the spouses
Šůsová, Táňa ; Macková, Alena (advisor) ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee) ; Havel, Bohumil (referee)
Discharge of debts of the spouses Abstract Discharge of debts represents, on principle, a new institute, which has been implemented into our law by the Insolvency Act with effect since 1. 1. 2008. However, the lawmakers have only implemented an expressed regulation of the joint discharge of debts of the spouses by the amendment with effect since 1. 1. 2014. In her paper, the authoress has been focused exclusively on the discharge of debts from the perspective of the spouses; therefore, not only the discharge of debts of the spouses as separate debtors but also the spouses as the community of debtors. In her paper, the authoress has been focused on the interpretation of the historical development of the joint discharge of debts of the spouses from the effect of the Insolvency Act, through its amendments up to the current wording thereof, including the illustrations in insolvency proceedings and judicial decisions. In several points, the prepared amendment to the Insolvency Act, which has been debated by the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, has also been mentioned in several points. In this paper, the authoress has outlined a brief introduction to the discharge of debts as a remedial form of the solution of the bankruptcy of the debtor. She has pointed out the development of the...
Guardianship and other forms of care of minors
Fidrmucová, Anna ; Dvořák, Jan (advisor) ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee) ; Spoustová, Ivana (referee)
Guardianship and other forms of care of minors Abstract The objective of this thesis is to analyse the legal possibilities in problematic situations when parents are not capable of caring for their children due to objective or subjective barriers on their sides. These possibilities are enshrined in the second part, Title III., § 928 - § 975 of the Civil Code of the Czech Republic. In order to derive recommendations for the Czech legal system, particularly with regard to the work overload of judges for minors in the Czech Republic, these regulations will subsequently be compared to the legal situation in France which is mainly determined by the Code civil and the Code de l'action sociale et des familles. The comparison namely includes critical juxtapositions of tutorship, curatorship, entrusting a child to the care of another person, foster care and placing a child in the children's home. Hereby, the content, purpose and requirements of the legal bases for these areas in both countries are presented and contrasted. Thus, the differences are highlighted, evaluated and analysed with regard to the effectiveness and the level of protection of rights which is assured in the countries. This thesis is divided into fourteen chapters, starting with the first two chapters covering the topics tutorship and curatorship...
The Elements of Liability for Damage under Civil Law
Novák, David ; Dvořák, Jan (advisor) ; Doležal, Tomáš (referee) ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee)
1 Abstract The objective of this thesis is to analyse the liability in civil law, mainly from the prospective of individual preconditions that together result in such liability for inflicted harm. The text is divided into nine parts including introduction and conclusion. The first part comprises the analysis of the legal term of liability from the prospective of existing theoretical concepts, then the approach as set forth under Act no. 89/2012 Sb, Civil Code, as amended (hereinafter referred to as "Civil Code") and the author's own approach is presented at the end of this part. The next part discusses in details the preconditions of liability for harm and then the sets of preconditions that together result in such liability are analysed. The author calls these sets as liability systems, as they are actually a variant of the objective and subjective liability. A separate chapter is dedicated to the objective liability. A separate chapter is also dedicated to the division of types of liabilities such as for defects, harm, default, etc., as this is crucial for the discussed topic. Next parts focus on individual preconditions for liability for harm, namely on violating legal obligations and relevant damage, harm, causality and fault as on the precondition typical for subjective liability, i.e. liability for...
Acquisition of property from an unauthorised person
Kratochvílová, Kateřina ; Thöndel, Alexandr (advisor) ; Frinta, Ondřej (referee)
130 English Abstract This diploma thesis deals with the issue of acquisition of property from an unauthorised person. Such a possibility deprives the owner of legal protection of his/her ownership rights in favour of protection of good faith of the acquirer, who thus can acquire ownership even though the transferor is a neither an owner nor authorised for any other reason to dispose with the property. The new Civil Code which entered into force on 1 January 2014 introduces new rules governing such situations, while differing significantly from the previous legislation. Legislation which was in effect until 1 January 2014 was inadequate, in particular due to dichotomy between Civil Code and Commercial Code. Another significant deficiency represented the lack of possibility of acquisition of immovable property registered in the cadastral register from an unauthorised person. Material publicity applied only to a limited extent and did not provide sufficient protection to persons who trusted that the rights recorded in the cadastral register also objectively existed. The diploma thesis is divided into six chapters and analyses the institute of acquisition of property from an unauthorised person in its broader context. The first chapter describes ownership right and manners of its acquisition as well as the...
Surrogate Motherhood - Comparison of the Legislation in the Czech Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany
Kratochvílová, Johana ; Frinta, Ondřej (advisor) ; Thöndel, Alexandr (referee)
The main subject of this master thesis is the issue of surrogacy in the Czech Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany. At the beginning, this thesis aspires to define the term surrogacy in general as well as other connected terminology, and subsequently to specify its categories and describe its major historic milestones. Afterwards, it deals with the rather brief Czech legislation concerning this institute and the consequences this has inevitably led to. It also concentrates on the methods of the assisted reproduction which help to put the surrogate motherhood into practice. This thesis does include ethical problems of surrogacy and some of the psychological and sociological aspects as well. Consequently, it summarizes sanctions which may arose as a result of surrogacy. After that, it explains the legislation related to this issue in the Federal Republic of Germany, its history and legal limits. It deals with the German sanctions which the realization as well as mere arrangement may be subjected to. It examines the standpoint of the German legislator regarding the right of a child to know his or her origin including its consequences, such as non-anonymous sperm donation and obligation of the legal parents to undergo a DNA test. It describes most recent demands of the society regarding the new...

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