National Repository of Grey Literature 10 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Markers for the prediction of preeclampsia and their relevance in the first trimester of pregnancy
Šedová, Lenka ; Kestlerová, Andrea (advisor) ; Švandová, Ivana (referee)
Preelampsia is a clinical syndrome found uniquely in a pregnant patient with an incidence 2 - 8 % of pregnancies worldwide. It is defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation, resolving with delivery or soon thereafter. Its worst consequences are eclampsia with tonic and clonic seizures and possibly coma. Also pulmonary edema, CNS hemorrhage, anaemia, hepatorenal failure, circulation failure and other complications can occur. In its most severe form, it affects nearly every organ. Preeclampsia remains a major cause of premature delivery and both maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The origin and the cause of the disease remain unknown and therefore the medical treatment focuses only on clinical manifestations. Timely prediction of preeclampsia would enable accurate therapeutic treatment and a decrease of the threat to maternal and fetal health. In this study, the most important predictive biomarkers of PE and their relevance in the first trimester of gestation are presented. Furthermore, a first trimester screening with the best prediction rates is described. Powered by TCPDF (
Pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic kidney disease progression
Sedláková, Lenka ; Kopkan, Libor (advisor) ; Švandová, Ivana (referee)
The kidneys are an essential organ that maintains the homeostasis of body fluid and ions, it filters metabolites and plays important endocrine role. Renal function is controled by many mechanisms with a close interaction that can work independently without central control. These mechanisms are regulated by both systemic and intrarenal humoral systems and their physiological balance sustains the optimal kidney fuction. Any disturbance of this balance leads to the impairments of renal function and progression of renal injury and thus the kidney works inappropriately. The renal insufficiency and diseases remain significant problem despite modern medicine. This is results of several risk factors such as age, genetic predisposition and low birth weight, increase of civilization diseases - diabetes, hypertension, autoimmune disorders, but also bad habits such as unhealthy lifestyle, smoking etc. These factors can lead to the acute or chronic kidney diseases often without known cause. Than the question is an early diagnosis and optimal treatment to preserve kidney function and stop the progression of terminal renal damage. This thesis should show the importance of kidney function and outline problems and consequences of renal insufficiency particularly during chronic kidney disease. Keywords: Renal...
Changes in placental angiogenesis and their impact on fetal intrauterine growth restriction
Kudějová, Alena ; Švandová, Ivana (advisor) ; Magner, Martin (referee)
Any pathological interference with normal vascular development of placenta may have a critical impact on fetal growth and development. The proliferation and differentiation of several cell types play a very important role in the vascular system of placenta. The main factors taking part in the vascular development of placenta include cell elements (e.g. trofoblast, stromal chorion cells, haemangiogenic progenitors), the extracellular matrix, growth factors and cytokines (e.g. VEGF, PlGF, Ang-1,2 and bFGF). The extrinsic factors may also influence the partial oxygen pressure, nutritients availability, and/or the blood perfusion in placenta. Placental ischaemia leading to the worsening of uteroplacentar perfusion is the most common cause of the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The IUGR development is then the result of insufficient prolongation, branching, and dilatation of capillary loops during the formation of terminal villi. Published studies focusing on growth factors in placentas from physiological pregnancies and pregnancies with IUGR do not give clear results. This BSc. Thesis is a review focused on up-to-date-known data concerning changes in placental angiogenesis and their impact on IUGR. Key words: placenta, angiogenesis, IUGR, pregnancy
Circadian system of SHR rats
Pačesová, Dominika ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Švandová, Ivana (referee)
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) harbor the master circadian pacemaker in mammals which is responsible for control and coordination of circadian rhythms throughout the body and ensure optimal functioning of the organism in variable external conditions. The SCN is a heterogeneous structure in its morphology and function. The present thesis focuses on comparison of the SCN and its properties in an animal model of pathological hypertension, i.e. in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and nonpathological normotensive Wistar rat. To determine selected morphological and functional markers in the SCN between both rat strains, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry methods were used. To compare functional properties of the SCN of SHR and Wistar rat, the effect of light pulses on the expression of c-fos and Per1 genes as well as on locomotor activity were studied in both strains. Our results suggest morphological differences in the number of neurons and in the expression of Avp a Vip in the SCN with an apparent tendencies to higher levels of the studied peptides in SHR compared to Wistar rat. Our data further indicate variation in functioning of the SCN in SHR and Wistar rat on the basis of different responses to light pulses administered in the first part of the subjective night, namely in the...
Laboratory diagnosis of pheochromocytoma
Chlupáčová, Tereza ; Bílek, Radovan (advisor) ; Švandová, Ivana (referee)
1 Phaeochromocytomas are tumors predominantly rare to chromaffin tissue in adrenal glands' medulla. Tumors in the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue are called paragangliomas. Phaeochromocytomas cause secretion of high amounts of catecholamines, which can lead to fatal consequences if not medically treated. The aim of this thesis is to summarize the so far known facts about this severe disease in a written review. The first part of the study focuses on issues of phaeochromocytoma research and lists general information about these tumors and their clinical manifestations. The importance of genetic influence in connection with treatment strategies for patients with phaeochromocytoma is also discussed. The second part of the thesis summarizes procedures and methods used in laboratory diagnostics of phaeochromocytomas. The conclusion briefly describes the possibilities of tumor localization using imaging technologies and procedures of subsequent treatment of patients with phaeochromocytoma.
Stanovení exprese vybraných proteinů apoptotické kaskády v lidském endometriu
Dolgovyazova, Anastassiya ; Švandová, Ivana (advisor) ; Vondrejs, Vladimír (referee)
Apoptosis is a process of the programmed cell death in response to severe mutations in DNA or cell stress. Apoptosis plays a key role in tissue maintenance by eliminating senescent and damaged cells. Various molecules take part in apoptosis, main participants are Bcl-2 protein family and caspases. The latter one are responsible for apoptosis execution, while Bcl-2 protein family regulates apoptotic pathway. Failure of this regulation may cause several pathologies, including development of neoplastic tissue. Human endometrium is a speci c tissue, in which apoptosis is present in cycling pattern. Present study shows expression level of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bid, pro-caspase-3, caspase-3 and PARP in normal, atrophic, hyperplastic and cancerous (Grade I and II) human endometrium. Bad and Bid proteins can be possible breakpoints in neoplastic transfer due to opposit expression in cancerous and hyperplastic endometrium.
Bcl-2 proteins and their role in outer mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis
Markupová, Lucie ; Novotný, Jiří (referee) ; Švandová, Ivana (advisor)
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death. It is physiological mechanism mediating catabolism of eucaryotic cells and is characterised by specific morphological and biochemical processes. It targets and destroys cells directly and afterwards eliminates cell without any demage to other nearby cells. Contrary of the apoptosis, necrosis affects more or less any random cell. Apoptosis is strictly organized and controlled process. A critical control point in apoptosis constitute proteins of the Bcl-2 family. These protein are able to adjust permeability of external (outer) mitochondrial membrane (OMM) which is an important step ahead of the whole process. Bcl-2 family proteins are usually divided into three groups. Two groups are pro-apoptotic and one group is anti-apoptotic. Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are generally increasing permeability of outer mitochondrial membrane which leads to the release of cytochrome c and other proteins (SMAC/Diablo) from mitochondria. When cytochrome c is released frm mitochondria, it activates the assembly of the apoptosome in the cytosol that activated executive caspase. On the other hand, anti-apoptotic proteins deactivate pro-apoptotic proteins and regulate their function.
Role of proteins of Bcl family on oncogyneacology
Lidová, Lenka ; Svoboda, Petr (referee) ; Švandová, Ivana (advisor)
The Bcl-2 protein family consists of about 20 homologues important for stimulation and inhibition of apoptosis. The ratio between pro- and antiapoptotic regulators predetermines fate of the cells. Apoptosis is a physiological form of cell death which plays an important role in tissue development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. By the apoptotic way are eliminated redundant cells and cells which can damage the organism. Cells undergo apoptosis through two major apoptotic pathways - the extrinsic or the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Apoptotic cells are characterised by specific changes - nuclear, plasma membrane, mitochondrial etc. The contents of dead cells are packaged into apoptotic bodies. These are then recognized by macrophages and cleared by phagocytosis. Dysregulation of apoptosis may lead to many malignant, autoimmune or degenerative diseases and some developmental defect. Understanding the mechanisms of apoptosis can be an important part of the diagnostics and therapy in oncology.

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