Ústav fyziky materiálů

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2021-03-28
00:00
WE43 BIOCOMPATIBLE ALLOY AFTER SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION: STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION
Kunčická, Lenka ; Král, Petr ; Dvořák, Jiří ; Kocich, R.
The report presents results of the analyses of biocompatible WE 43 Mg-based alloy processed by friction stir processing (FSP) at two different rotational speeds of 400 RPM, and 1200 RPM. The structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Observations were primarily focused on characterizations of grains and textures, supplementary testing of mechanical properties was performed via tensile tests. The results of low angle grain boundaries fractions and grain sizes showed that both the processing methods led to significant grain refinement and recrystallization, the average grain diameter within the 1200 RPM sample was less than 2 μm. Texture observations showed slight tendencies of the grains to align in the {0001}〈101̅0〉 and {0001}〈112̅0〉 preferential orientations, however, the maximum intensities were only about two times random. Supplementary tensile tests confirmed the positive effects of FSP on structures and properties of both the samples.

Úplný záznam
2021-02-24
00:44
PHASE COMPOSITION OF CHOSEN Mg-BASED MATERIALS DURING HYDROGEN SORPTION
Čermák, Jiří ; Král, Lubomír ; Roupcová, Pavla
Phase transformation during hydrogen sorption was investigated in ten chosen magnesium-based hydrogen storage (HS) materials. Chemical composition of the materials consisted of Mg, as a principal hydrogen-binding element, additive X and amorphous carbon (CB), as an anti-sticking component. In order to assess the effect of X itself upon the structure, values of concentration of both X and CB were fixed to about 12 wt. %. The influence of X = Mg2Si, Mg2Ge, Mg17Al12, Mg5Ga2, NaCl, LiCl, NaF, LiF and two combinations Ni+Mg17Al12 and Ni+Mg2Si upon the changes in phase composition was tested. Phase content in HS materials was observed (i) after the intensive ball milling (BM), (ii) after the BM followed by hydrogen charging at 623 K and (iii) after the BM and one hydrogen charging/discharging cycle (C/D) at temperature 623 K. The study was carried out by SEM and XRD. It was found that, the C/D is approximately structurally reversible for X = Mg2Ge, Mg17Al12, NaF and LiF. However, additives X = Mg17Al12 and NaF decompose already during the BM. In alloys with combination of Ni with Mg17Al12, new phases NimAln are formed. Phase composition changed during C/D for X = Mg2Si Mg5Ga2 and Ni+Mg2Si due to equilibration of phases composition. Observed structure changes of HS materials with chloride ionic additives NaCl and LiCl are, most likely caused by the relatively strong affinity between Mg and Cl. Hydrogen storage capacity of all studied alloys was 6.0 +/- 0.3 wt. % H-2.

Úplný záznam
2021-02-24
00:43
Effect of casting conditions and heat treatment on high temperature low cycle fatigue performance of nickel superalloy Inconel 713LC
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Hrbáček, Karel
The present work is focused on the study of high temperature low cycle fatigue behaviour of Inconel 713LC produced by a vibratory investment casting (VIC) in as-cast conditions and in the condition after heat treatment (HT) consisting of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) followed by precipitation hardening. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on cylindrical specimens in symmetrical push-pull cycle under strain control with constant total strain amplitude and strain rate at 800 °C in air. Hardening/softening curves and fatigue life curves of both materials were assessed and compared with data of Inconel 713LC produced by a conventional investment casting (CIC). Cyclic hardening can be observed in the high amplitude domain while saturated stress response is apparent for low amplitude cycling for all material batches. Data presented in Basquin representation show an increase in fatigue life of both VIC batches compared to the CIC batch, however, no effect of HT on fatigue life of Inconel 713LC produced by VIC was observed. In contrast, the heat treated Inconel 713LC demonstrates slightly higher fatigue life in Coffin-Manson representation. The microstructure of both superalloys was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure of superalloy is characterized by dendritic grains with casting defects. It comprises the γ matrix, cubic γ´ precipitates, eutectics and carbides. The effect of the VIC and HT on fatigue performance and microstructure of Inconel 713LC is discussed.

Úplný záznam
2020-12-03
22:56
Měření velmi pomalých creepových deformací materiálů pro pokrytí jaderného paliva technikou helikoidních vzorků.
Kloc, Luboš
Metodika umožňuje přímé experimentální stanovení creepových vlastností povlakových trubek jaderného paliva za podmínek, při kterých probíhá creepová deformace velmi pomalu, takže není standardními metodami creepových zkoušek měřitelná. Takto získané údaje jsou potřebné ve výpočtových kódech pro modelování chování paliva v reaktoru i mimo\nněj při skladování paliva a dosud chybí, popřípadě jsou získávany nespolehlivou extrapolací.

Úplný záznam
2020-12-03
22:56
Snímání akustických emisí při zkoušce tečením (creepem) v ochranné atmosféře
Dvořák, Jiří ; Svobodová, M. ; Sklenička, Václav
Cílem vypracované metodiky snímání akustických emisí 'in-situ' v průběhu creepové zkoušky v ochranné atmosféře byla minimalizace či odstranění šumů na záznamech akustické emise způsobených synergicky působícími oxidačními procesy, které mohou kriticky ovlivňovat identifikaci a intenzitu působících vlastních creepových degradačních procesů a relevantní vyhodnocení naměřených dat.

Úplný záznam
2019-12-09
08:15
DETEKCE PORUCH POMOCÍ AKUSTICKÉ EMISE (AE) V PODMÍNKÁCH VYSOKOTEPLOTNÍHO CREEPU
Dvořák, Jiří ; Sklenička, Václav ; Král, Petr ; Kvapilová, Marie ; Svobodová, M. ; Šifner, J. ; Koula, V.
Současné aplikace akustické emise (AE) jsou přednostně orientovány na průběžný monitoring provozu strojních komponent. AE je perspektivní nedestruktivní metodou pro včasnou predikci a identifikaci poruch materiálu dříve než dojde k havárii sledovaných zařízení. Příspěvek analyzuje naměřená data a rozbor signálů na úrovni jednotlivých emisních událostí v průběhu creepové zkoušky mědi na základě výsledků předchozí mikrostrukturní a fraktografické analýzy jejího creepového porušení a lomu. Cílem modelové studie je přispět k úspěšné aplikaci AE pro reálné provozní komponenty energetických zařízení a tím ke zvýšení jejich provozní bezpečnosti.

Úplný záznam
2019-12-09
08:15
HYDROGEN SORPTION IN ORDERED Mg-In ALLOYS
Čermák, Jiří ; Král, Lubomír ; Roupcová, Pavla
Hydrogen storage (HS) performance of three Mg- x In- y CB alloys (CB - amorphous carbon, x = 55, 64, 73 y =\n10 wt%) was studied. Indium concentration covered an area of ordered β structures. Alloys were prepared by\nball-milling in hydrogen atmosphere. Kinetic curves and PCT isotherms were measured in the temperature\ninterval from 200 °C to 325 °C. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) was used for structure investigation. Alloy\nwith x = 73 wt% In ( β ’’ structure) showed reversible amorphization during temperature cycling between about\n100 °C and 350 °C. Hydrogen sorption experiments were done by the Sieverts method under the hydrogen\ngas pressure ranging from 0.1 MPa to 2.5 MPa. It was found that hydrogen sorption capacity varied between\n0.47 and 1.1 wt% H 2 . Hydride formation enthalpy ∆H calculated from desorption PCT experiments was\nsignificantly lower than ∆H , known for pure Mg. This invoked an idea that atomic order of Mg-based HS\nmaterials might decrease the high thermodynamic stability of hydride phase.

Úplný záznam
2019-12-09
08:15
CALIBRATION FUNCTIONS FOR EDGE CRACKS UNDER SELECTED BENDING LOADS.\n\n
Seitl, Stanislav ; Miarka, Petr
Fatigue cracks are found during the regular structural inspections. To precisely\ndescribe/suggest of fatigue cracks propagation throughout structure and for designed\nservice life, the knowledge of calibration functions is important. The cracks usually\npropagate from the edge or the surface of the structural element. The theoretical model\nof fatigue crack propagation is based on linear fracture mechanics (Paris law). Steel\nstructural elements are subjected to various bending load (three- and four-point bending,\npure bending etc.). The calibration functions for the edge cracks are calculated for\nvarious load and appropriate polynomial function independent on the distance are\nproposed for 3PB and 4PB load.

Úplný záznam
2019-11-25
10:16
ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF DILUTED CU-CO ALLOYS
Buršík, Jiří ; Svoboda, Milan
The work is focused on characterization of diluted model Cu-Co alloys with Co content from 2 to 4 wt.% after various thermal treatment. After initial annealing at 1273 K followed by water cooling, further annealing of the oversaturated solid solution in the range 773 to 1073 K generated a fine distribution of Co-rich precipitates. Parameters of microstructure were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

Úplný záznam
2019-11-25
10:16
HYDROGEN STORAGE PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE OXIDE MATERIALS PREPARED BY DIFFERENT WAYS
Král, Lubomír ; Čermák, Jiří ; Bytesnikova, Z.
Graphene-based materials show unique properties. These single layered materials consist of 2D structure of carbon atoms, belong to the strongest known materials, that are very mechanically flexible, optically transparent and that are excellent electrical and thermal conductors. Recently, several studies on these types of materials have highlighted the potential of this material for hydrogen storage (HS) and raised new hopes for the development of an effective solid-state HS media. In the present paper, the structure and HS properties of graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) produced by different procedures were studied. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of GO and rGO were measured using the Sieverts-type gas sorption analyzer PCT-Pro Setaram Instrumentation. The study of HS was carried out at temperature range from 198 K to 423 K under hydrogen pressure from 1x10(-4) to 4 MPa. \n\nFor the HS point of view, the advantage of GO or rGO compared to graphene, is the presence of multiple chemical groups that can be used for introducing modifiers and their superior spreading on the materials surface. The suitably functionalized GO or rGO materials could potentially exhibit outstanding HS properties.

Úplný záznam