National Repository of Grey Literature 129 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Home parenteral nutrition during a day and night regime
Fidlerová, Karolína ; Meisnerová, Eva (advisor) ; Staněk, Ivo (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with home parenteral nutrition in the day and night regime and its effect on patients. Parenteral nutrition is usually administered at night so that patients can do normal daily activities and so that nutrition administered in this way has the least impact on their lives. Parenteral nutrition is not a physiological route of nutrient administration and it is not natural for the human body to process nutrients at night. The first part of the theoretical work presents parenteral nutrition and its composition, indications, contraindications and complications. The next part of the thesis describes home parenteral nutrition and its organisation which is necessary for this form of nutritional support to be implemented. It is necessary to monitor many laboratory values on parenteral nutrition, the theoretical part specifically mentions cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glycemia or liver function tests. One of the important parts is the chapter about circadian rhythms, hormones and metabolic changes in energy intake at night. Qualitative research was chosen for this work, which involved 17 patients on home parenteral nutrition. These patients were getting their nutrition during the night. Their laboratory values such as liver function tests, glycaemia and blood fats was evaluated and...
Sirtuin 3 and its function in cardiac metabolism
Procházka, Marek ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Koňaříková, Eliška (referee)
SIRT3 is a NAD+ -dependent deacetylase, that is abundant in the heart and essentially regulates cellular processes in cardiomyocytes. SIRT3 positively modulates most of the enzymes and proteins in the intermediate metabolism in mitochondria, which supply the necessary ATP energy for the heart muscle and that are centers of metabolism in cardiomyocytes. In the mitochondria SIRT3 inhibits the formation of ROS by activating an antioxidant system. SIRT3 has significant anti-apoptotic, anti-hypertrophic and anti-fibrotic cardioprotective effects. Its activation is based on several drugs and natural substances that could be a promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are currently the leading cause of death of more than a half of the European population. However, more studies are required for better understanding the processes in which SIRT3 is involved. The aim of this work is to summarize the function of SIRT3 in mitochondrial metabolism and cardiac physiology. Key words: sirtuin 3, cardioprotection, metabolism, heart, mitochondria
Metabolipidomic profiling of white adipose tissue by UPLC-MS/MS
Rombaldová, Martina
Obesity is a serious problem in society today [1,2]. It might seems to have been caused simply by excess consumption of food compared to energy expenditure but obesity is actually a complex metabolic disorder centred on adipose lipid metabolism and cellular signalling systems linked to it [3]. Understanding the biology of adipose tissue (AT) is very important for the identification of novel and potential therapeutic targets in order to prevent and treat obesity-related disorders [4]. We utilized analytical approach liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to study adipose tissue metabolism. Also, we were especially interested in the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on that metabolism. Rodent and cell line experiments were performed and analyses were done of white adipose tissue (WAT), serum/plasma samples or cells as well as milk samples from mothers. At first, we established several ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) methods for analysis of acylcarnitines (AC), amino acids (AmA) and other metabolites. Importantly, these methods were able to distinguish isobaric species of AC which is not usually possible. Using these approaches we uncovered several acylcarnitines, i.e. long chain AC, carnitine, acylcarnitine C4 and...
The analysis of the textbooks and the creating of the learning texts about the thematic unit of carbohydrates and their metabolism for the gymnasial grammar schools
Šmídl, Milan
The main parameters describing content and the accessibility of information from textbooks are many aspects such as text difficulty and others. Individual characteristics of pupils - that are represented by chosen student preconceptions and misconceptions - also belong to key factors. The providing of the comprehensive view of the issues regarding analysis and the linking of acquired pieces of knowledge with the practical textbook creation have been the main aims of this dissertation. The creation of an instructional text follows the analysis results of the topic carbohydrates and their metabolism in chosen textbooks and the preconception analysis of biochemical terms. The instructional text respects the results of the analysis. The theoretical background of textbook creation (the functions of textbooks, their structure, content, characteristics and investigated parameters) has been described in detail in the theoretical part of this doctoral thesis. It is followed by the survey of the information concerning student preconceptions and the possibilities for their analysis and use in teaching. The aspects of textbooks use from the perspective of pupils, teachers and publishers, as well as the relation of the topic carbohydrates and their metabolism to curriculum documents have been described in the...
Effect of selected food supplements on metabolism of food-born carcinogens
Fousová, Petra
The consumption of dietary supplements such as flavonoids may reduce risk of many civilization diseases. Flavonoids are able to modulate the activity of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), xenobiotic-metabolising phase I enzymes of biotransformation that are involved in the activation and detoxification of food-derived carcinogens. Inhibition of CYP activities by flavonoids has been extensively studied because of their potential use as agents blocking the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, flavonoids have been shown to enhance the activation of carcinogens and/or influence their metabolism via induction of specific CYPs. In the first part of this study, flavonoids dihydromyricetin and α-napthoflavone were explored for their possible effects on CYP1A1 expression and activity when administered in combination with carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). For this purpose, liver, small intestine and colon microsomal fractions were isolated from treated rats and induction of CYP1A1 was evaluated by immunodetection and EROD activity measurements. In liver and small intestine, all combinations of BaP and flavonoids led to strong induction of CYP1A1 expression. Moreover, the CYP1A1 protein levels were almost identical to levels observed when the rats were treated with BaP alone. However, in comparison...
The effect of dihydromyricetin and myricetin on selected biotransformation enzymes
Boštíková, Zdislava
Flavonoids are natural compounds commonly ingested in herbs and vegetables. They are believed to have a positive impact on human organism, in particular by their antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer effects. In these days, it is possible to consume high concentrations of these compounds in form of dietary supplements. However it is not clear, whether flavonoids in such unnaturally high concentrations are still beneficial or rather harmful. It has already been proven, that flavonoids can influence the activity of biotransformation enzymes and interfere e.g. with the process of carcinogenesis and drug metabolism. For that reason it is important to investigate the impact of an increased intake of flavonoids. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the influence of dihydromyricetin (a potential drug to cure alcohol use disorder) and its structurally similar flavonoid myricetin on the activity of enzymes, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and N­acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1/2). The research included the determination of the impact of a premedication by these flavonoids on the expression and activity of CYP2E1 and NAT1/2. The inhibition capacity of myricetin and dihydromyricetin towards the activity of CYP2E1 and NAT1/2 was also investigated. After the flavonoid premedication of rats the...
Sulfates as phase II metabolites of natural phenolic compounds
Hetman, Anastasiia ; Mladěnka, Přemysl (advisor) ; Siatka, Tomáš (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Anastasiia Hetman Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Přemysl Mladěnka, PharmD., Ph.D. Co-supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Kateřina Valentová, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Sulfates as phase II metabolites of natural phenolic compounds Natural monophenolic compounds, which both occur in plants and are formed during gut microbiota metabolism of polyphenols, are absorbed and pass through phase II metabolism. This results in the formation of various conjugated metabolites, such as sulfates, whose biological activity was not studied as yet. This work focused on the preparation and isolation of pure sulfated metabolites of phenolic compounds, namely 4- methylcatechol, protocatechuic, homoprotocatechuic, and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, and phloroglucinol, using the aryl sulphotransferase from Desulfitobacterium hafniense. As a result, two sulfated products of sufficient purity were prepared, namely 4- methylcatechol-O-sulfate (an inseparable mixture of 4-methylcatechol-2-O-sulfate and 4- methylcatechol-1-O-sulfate) and phloroglucinol-O-sulfate. Their antioxidantactivity was evaluated and compared with the activity of the parent compounds using the following six in vitro tests: DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and...
Nutrition and Bone Density of Patients of Osteocentre, 3rd Medical Department, General Faculty Hospital in Prague.
Staroveská, Natálie ; Raška, Ivan (advisor) ; Michalská, Dana (referee)
This thesis deals with the relationship between bone quality and lifestyle factors with a focus on nutrition, tobacco use, alcohol consumption and physical activity. The theoretical part of the thesis presents general knowledge about bones, their composition, structure, bone division, growth and development of bones. The next two chapters describe the process of bone remodeling and calcium- phosphate metabolism. The work describes in detail the factors influencing the quality of bone mass, especially those that can be affected, such as the use of tobacco products, alcohol, some drugs and sufficient physical activity. A separate chapter is devoted to the influence of diet on the quality of bone mass. The most common disorders of calcium-phosphate metabolism and their treatment are described as well. The last chapter of the practical part is devoted to the examination of bone metabolism. The aim of the practical part of the diploma thesis was to examine the eating habits and other components of the lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, etc.) of patients of Osteocentre, 3rd Medical Department, General Faculty Hospital in Prague and to find out how these components correlate with the results of densitometric examination of the patients. Data collection was ensured by means of a questionnaire survey,...
The role of metabolism and immune system in pulmonary hypertension
Křivonosková, Monika ; Plecitá, Lydie (advisor) ; Vašek, Daniel (referee)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a low-incidence, fatal, disease that affects the pulmonary vessels, which remodel, thicken and gradually reduce lumen. During this signaling molecules are excreted from endothelial cells, which act vasoconstrictively and proliferatively on smooth muscle cells. There is also a reduction in the production of vaodilators, which again has a vasoconstrictive effect. Accumulation of immune cells in adventitia promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which causes changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. Changes in metabolism within all artery layers related to the transition to glycolysis and increased glucose uptake promote cell proliferation and modulate signaling leading to infiltration and activation of immune cells resulting in artery remodeling.

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