National Repository of Grey Literature 179 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Zinc in food suplements
Sauchanka, Katsiaryna ; Suková, Petra (referee) ; Řezáčová, Veronika (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine zinc in the dietary supplements by the voltammetric method. The general properties of zinc, its occurrence, toxicity and influence on human health are described in the first part. Next the methods, including a detailed description of the voltammetric analysis, are summarized. The experimental part is focused on the process of optimization of the conditions for zinc voltammetric analysis and the application of the optimised method on real samples.
Investigation of the effect of creatine in combination with magnesium and vitamin C on the performance of the individual person
Vlasák, Jan ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
Creatine is nitrogen-containing organic acid which naturally occurs in the human body. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal dose of creatine in combination with vitamin C and magnesium for male respondents aged 18-26 years. They were divided into two groups differing in the creatine dosage. Group 1 took smaller dose of creatine (3 g per day) and group 2 higher dose of creatine (10 g per day). Both groups took both magnesium and vitamin C at constant doses throughout the study. The effects of significantly different dose of creatine in the individual groups were compared with each other in terms of the performance of individuals in the powerlifting, the anthropological changes and the overal metabolism of the intakes. In all disciplines of powerlifting, group 1 recorded higher average weight gains, which were not found to be statistically significant at a significance level of alpha 0,05. Anthropological changes were measured using the InBody 160 and a diagnostic measuring tape. In both cases, group 1 recorded better results than group 2, but these results were not statistically significant at a significance level of alpha 0,05. The total metabolism of the accepted dietary supplements was investigated through analytical methods. The urine of each respondent was regularly collected and subsequently analyzed during the research. Determination of creatinine, a creatine waste product, was performed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry using the Jaffe reaction. Vitamin C was analyzed by RP-HPLC. Magnesium was determined by the ICP-OES method. After creatine suplemantion of 3 per day, group 1 showed a slight increase in creatinine in the urine, but still in the physiological range. At the significance level alpha 0,05 there was no statistically significant difference. Group 2 showed an increase above the physiological limit which was already a statistically significant difference. Overall, creatine supplementation of 3 g per day has been found as a sufficient intake of creatine needed to build up muscle mass, increase energy metabolism and overall physical performance. The metabolization itself works very well and within the physiological values.
Metabolic setup of Drosophila macrophages during the immune response
KREJČOVÁ, Gabriela
Adjustment of cellular metabolism is a key function that allows macrophages to fulfill their roles in the body. While the pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophages has been extensively studied in mammalian models, it has not yet been satisfactorily investigated in insects. The study presented in this thesis therefore attempts to elucidate the metabolic setup of macrophages during the immune response in Drosophila melanogaster.
The role of macrophages in the regulation of systemic metabolism in Drosophila
KREJČOVÁ, Gabriela
Macrophages are immensely versatile cells in the mammalian body, fulfilling roles ranging from protection against pathogenic intruders and engulfing apoptotic cells to morphogenesis and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This impressive functional versatility may be achieved due to plasticity of macrophage cellular metabolism called metabolic polarization. The adoption of different polarization phenotypes by macrophages determines their function and is essential for the health of the organism. Nonetheless, if the cells lose their metabolic plasticity or polarize inadequately to a particular situation, it can lead to the development of chronic pathological states such as metabolic syndrome. Metabolic polarization of immune cells is thus a key factor in determining whether macrophage function within the organism will be adaptive or pathological. Despite Drosophila melanogaster represents a major model organism for immunological studies, the metabolic setup of activated immune cells has not been addressed up to now. The results of this thesis document that Drosophila immune cells undergo metabolic polarization toward aerobic glycolysis when challenged by extracellular bacteria. Mammals alike, this cellular metabolic switch is regulated by the transcription factor HIF1, thus documenting the conservation of this process between insects and vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that the adoption of aerobic glycolysis is directly linked to the production of the signaling factor IMPL2, which induces the mobilization of lipid stores from the fat body via the silencing of insulin signaling. By this mechanism, immune cells secure sufficient nutrients for successful elimination of the pathogen. Moreover, the mammalian ImpL2 homolog IGFBP7 appears to act analogously in the mammalian liver not only during severe infectious states but also in the liver of obese individuals. While such macrophage activity in regulating systemic metabolism is beneficial to the host during bacterial infection, it becomes maladaptive when chronically activated. Further evidence for a metabolism-regulatory role of immune cells has been found during insect metamorphosis and early post-metamorphic development. This thesis documents that during this period, macrophages infiltrate and engulf the histolyzing larval fat body and convert nutrients into storage peptides and lipoproteins. Subsequently, these nutrients are exploited by the maturing adult structures.
Kontrola výživy a metabolismu dojnic v chovu s automatizovaným systémem krmení a dojení
Záboj, Dominik
The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the effect of changing the technology of feed loading (conventional feed wagon loading vs. automated feed loading) on the content of milk components, especially on the concentration of urea as an indicator of feed balance over time. For the analysis of the milk constituent content in relation to ration balance, individual samples from the performance check, pool samples analysed by the dairy and herd averages from the Lely Astronaut A4 milking robot were used, which were collected from 1st January 2021 to 31st December 2022. The results of the study document that the change in feeding technology had neither a positive nor a negative effect on the milk constituent content. Statistical evaluation revealed only a significant difference in the number of somatic cells in milk (p < 0.01). Other evaluated milk composition parameters (protein, fat, lactose, urea) were not significantly affected by the change in feeding technology (p > 0.05). In the correlation test between pool samples and individual samples, statistically significant correlations were found for urea (r = 0.66), fat (r = 0.45) and somatic cell count (r = 0.63) at a significance level of p < 0.05. However, correlation analysis of milk testing results from robotic milking with data from pool samples and individual performance control samples yielded inconsistent data, with a positive correlation found only between the mean somatic cell count from the robotic milking parlor and individual KU samples (r = 0.22). In a set of examinations of individual milk samples from KU (n = 2112), correlation analysis was performed between all determined components. Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between protein and fat (r = 0.82), lactose and fat (r = 0.68), somatic cell count and fat (r = 0.13), urea and fat (r = 0.45), lactose and protein (r = 0.80), somatic cell count and protein (r = 0.13), urea and protein (r = 0.47) and for urea and lactose (r = 0.45). It is clear from the results that the results of the analysis of milk from the robotic milking parlour differ from the standard values found in performance monitoring and in the examination of pool milk samples, which thus appear to be more suitable for monitoring nutrition and metabolism.
Vliv selenu a vitamínu E na kvalitu masa vykrmovaných býků
Navrátilová, Eliška
A control and an experimental group of bulls were set up for the experiment. The bulls were fed the same total mixed ration. The experimental group had this total mixed ration by the addition of vitamin E and selenium. The whole experiment lasted for 90 days. The bulls were weighed at monthly intervals. At the end of the experiment, the bulls were slaughtered at the slaughterhouse. Samples were taken from the muscle, which were wrapped and stored in a refrigerator. Individual analyses were conducted for a total of 4 weeks, from week 0 to week 4 of maturation. Analysis for selenium content and sensory properties of the meat was carried out at the beginning and at the end of maturation. The result showed that the addition of selenium and vitamin E to the total mixed ration did not affect weight and gain. The selenium content in the meat of the experimental group was higher and increased during maturation, while that of the control group was lower and gradually decreased. As the selenium content of the meat increased, the sensory parameters evaluated also improved, whereas the results of the control group were similar at weeks 1 and 4 of maturation.
Exploring the role of opioid signaling in modulation of microglial function
Mali, Akash Shivling ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Svoboda, Petr (referee) ; Machová Urdzíková, Lucia (referee)
Microglial activation is the most important component of neuroinflammation. It appears that opioids may affect microglial M1/M2 polarization in different ways depending on the type of receptor employed. In addition to opioid receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the innate immune system can also be activated by some opioid ligands and thus elicit specific cellular responses. Although opioid receptors (ORs) are known to regulate neurotransmission in various peptidergic neurons, their potential role in modulation of microglial function remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OR agonists, namely DAMGO, DADLE, and U-50488, on polarization and metabolic modulation of C8-B4 microglial cells. Our findings have revealed that opioids effectively suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered M1 polarization and promote the M2 polarization state. This was evidenced by decreased phagocytic activity, decreased production of nitric oxide (NO), diminished expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-86, and IL-12 beta p40, along with an increased migration rate and elevated expression of anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 arginase 1, and CD206 in microglia compared to cells influenced by LPS. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that...
Effect of caloric restriction on neuroplasticity
Sonina, Alisa ; Málková, Petra (advisor) ; Kolář, David (referee)
Calorie restriction has been shown to have a wide range of beneficial effects on health and longevity, although its effects on brain function are not as well known. This paper reviews the current state of research on the effects of calorie restriction on neuroplasticity, including studies examining the molecular, structural, and behavioral effects of dietary restriction in animal and human models. Overall, the evidence suggests that caloric restriction promotes neuroplasticity. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these effects and to determine the optimal duration and intensity of caloric restriction. Key words: Caloric restriction, neuroplasticity, diet, cognition, neurogenesis, metabolism
The role of cumulus cells during the maturation of mammalian oocytes
Meniuková, Kateřina ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
Cumulus cells in the ovarian follicles emerge by differentiation from somatic granulosa cells. They are located around the oocytes in stratified clusters and their innermost layer is called the corona radiata. Cytoplasmic microvilli of cumulus cells pass through zona pellucida to the proximity of the oolema, where formation of gap junctions enables signalling and metabolic codependency. Oocytes produce factors affecting processes in cumulus cells, including their metabolism and viability. By modulating the abundance of cyclic nucleotides in oocytes, cumulus cells allow the maintenance of meiotic arrest, providing time for oocytes to finish their growth and gain competence for maturation. Because oocytes have a very limited ability to process glucose, metabolic cooperation with cumulus cells enables them to gain the energy needed for processes associated with growth and maturation. Several metabolic pathways of glucose processing create energy substrates for the formation of ATP, which they then transport to the oocytes. They also regulate the amount of lipid droplets in oocytes and protect them from cellular toxicity. An increase in the concentration of luteinizing hormone in the follicle just before ovulation induces the transmission of the signal for cumulus expansion. Interruption of the...

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