National Repository of Grey Literature 177 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Kontrola výživy a metabolismu dojnic v chovu s automatizovaným systémem krmení a dojení
Záboj, Dominik
The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the effect of changing the technology of feed loading (conventional feed wagon loading vs. automated feed loading) on the content of milk components, especially on the concentration of urea as an indicator of feed balance over time. For the analysis of the milk constituent content in relation to ration balance, individual samples from the performance check, pool samples analysed by the dairy and herd averages from the Lely Astronaut A4 milking robot were used, which were collected from 1st January 2021 to 31st December 2022. The results of the study document that the change in feeding technology had neither a positive nor a negative effect on the milk constituent content. Statistical evaluation revealed only a significant difference in the number of somatic cells in milk (p < 0.01). Other evaluated milk composition parameters (protein, fat, lactose, urea) were not significantly affected by the change in feeding technology (p > 0.05). In the correlation test between pool samples and individual samples, statistically significant correlations were found for urea (r = 0.66), fat (r = 0.45) and somatic cell count (r = 0.63) at a significance level of p < 0.05. However, correlation analysis of milk testing results from robotic milking with data from pool samples and individual performance control samples yielded inconsistent data, with a positive correlation found only between the mean somatic cell count from the robotic milking parlor and individual KU samples (r = 0.22). In a set of examinations of individual milk samples from KU (n = 2112), correlation analysis was performed between all determined components. Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between protein and fat (r = 0.82), lactose and fat (r = 0.68), somatic cell count and fat (r = 0.13), urea and fat (r = 0.45), lactose and protein (r = 0.80), somatic cell count and protein (r = 0.13), urea and protein (r = 0.47) and for urea and lactose (r = 0.45). It is clear from the results that the results of the analysis of milk from the robotic milking parlour differ from the standard values found in performance monitoring and in the examination of pool milk samples, which thus appear to be more suitable for monitoring nutrition and metabolism.
Vliv selenu a vitamínu E na kvalitu masa vykrmovaných býků
Navrátilová, Eliška
A control and an experimental group of bulls were set up for the experiment. The bulls were fed the same total mixed ration. The experimental group had this total mixed ration by the addition of vitamin E and selenium. The whole experiment lasted for 90 days. The bulls were weighed at monthly intervals. At the end of the experiment, the bulls were slaughtered at the slaughterhouse. Samples were taken from the muscle, which were wrapped and stored in a refrigerator. Individual analyses were conducted for a total of 4 weeks, from week 0 to week 4 of maturation. Analysis for selenium content and sensory properties of the meat was carried out at the beginning and at the end of maturation. The result showed that the addition of selenium and vitamin E to the total mixed ration did not affect weight and gain. The selenium content in the meat of the experimental group was higher and increased during maturation, while that of the control group was lower and gradually decreased. As the selenium content of the meat increased, the sensory parameters evaluated also improved, whereas the results of the control group were similar at weeks 1 and 4 of maturation.
Exploring the role of opioid signaling in modulation of microglial function
Mali, Akash Shivling ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Svoboda, Petr (referee) ; Machová Urdzíková, Lucia (referee)
Microglial activation is the most important component of neuroinflammation. It appears that opioids may affect microglial M1/M2 polarization in different ways depending on the type of receptor employed. In addition to opioid receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the innate immune system can also be activated by some opioid ligands and thus elicit specific cellular responses. Although opioid receptors (ORs) are known to regulate neurotransmission in various peptidergic neurons, their potential role in modulation of microglial function remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OR agonists, namely DAMGO, DADLE, and U-50488, on polarization and metabolic modulation of C8-B4 microglial cells. Our findings have revealed that opioids effectively suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered M1 polarization and promote the M2 polarization state. This was evidenced by decreased phagocytic activity, decreased production of nitric oxide (NO), diminished expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-86, and IL-12 beta p40, along with an increased migration rate and elevated expression of anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 arginase 1, and CD206 in microglia compared to cells influenced by LPS. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that...
Effect of caloric restriction on neuroplasticity
Sonina, Alisa ; Málková, Petra (advisor) ; Kolář, David (referee)
Calorie restriction has been shown to have a wide range of beneficial effects on health and longevity, although its effects on brain function are not as well known. This paper reviews the current state of research on the effects of calorie restriction on neuroplasticity, including studies examining the molecular, structural, and behavioral effects of dietary restriction in animal and human models. Overall, the evidence suggests that caloric restriction promotes neuroplasticity. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these effects and to determine the optimal duration and intensity of caloric restriction. Key words: Caloric restriction, neuroplasticity, diet, cognition, neurogenesis, metabolism
The role of cumulus cells during the maturation of mammalian oocytes
Meniuková, Kateřina ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
Cumulus cells in the ovarian follicles emerge by differentiation from somatic granulosa cells. They are located around the oocytes in stratified clusters and their innermost layer is called the corona radiata. Cytoplasmic microvilli of cumulus cells pass through zona pellucida to the proximity of the oolema, where formation of gap junctions enables signalling and metabolic codependency. Oocytes produce factors affecting processes in cumulus cells, including their metabolism and viability. By modulating the abundance of cyclic nucleotides in oocytes, cumulus cells allow the maintenance of meiotic arrest, providing time for oocytes to finish their growth and gain competence for maturation. Because oocytes have a very limited ability to process glucose, metabolic cooperation with cumulus cells enables them to gain the energy needed for processes associated with growth and maturation. Several metabolic pathways of glucose processing create energy substrates for the formation of ATP, which they then transport to the oocytes. They also regulate the amount of lipid droplets in oocytes and protect them from cellular toxicity. An increase in the concentration of luteinizing hormone in the follicle just before ovulation induces the transmission of the signal for cumulus expansion. Interruption of the...
Levels of vitamin D in relation to respiratory diseases up to 19 years of age
Introduction: The positive effects of vitamin D on the human body are frequently discussed and investigated by numerous studies, both foreign and domestic, and its serum levels are closely monitored in relation to diseases. Vitamin D has positive effects on the immune system, influences intestinal calcium transport, is important for proper mental and physical development and growth of children, even during pregnancy, and helps prevent lung diseases. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between blood vitamin D levels and respiratory diseases in children. Methodology: Serum vitamin D levels and their relationship to respiratory diseases were also monitored in relation to gender and season (summer and winter). Sample: Blood samples were collected from 127 respondents aged 2 months to 18 years, including both healthy and sick individuals, for vitamin D levels. Data collection and processing for healthy children were approved by their parents (Appendix 1). Blood samples were collected over a period of two years at a healthcare facility in the South Bohemian region. The results were evaluated in two borderline groups, at 50 and 75 nmol/L. Furthermore, the vitamin D content of 10 diets of these children was processed and evaluated. The resulting values of vitamin D levels also included studied diets. Results: The results did not confirm the expected relationship between vitamin D levels and respiratory tract diseases in children in either borderline group at 50 and 75 nmol/L. However, partial effects on the respiratory tract were confirmed. Discussion: The author attempts to explain why the hypothesis was not clearly confirmed.
Structuralism for the 21st Century
Vojtíšek, Martin ; Štojdl, Václav (referee) ; Rozwalka, Szymon (advisor)
Nomos is partly a theoretical project that explores differences between Dutch Structuralism and Japanese Metabolism and tries to find a contemporary architectural system, that is intended as a contemporary interpretation of these movements. The project emphasizes an underutilization of the changeability of our environment and tries to incorporate it into the design of the system so that the user can customize it. It explores ways to combine the benefits of organic growth and modular design through the simulation of a reaction-diffusion. The application of the system shows a possible solution in a specific context with the design of a fragment.
Zdroje bílkovin v lidské výživě
Amirova, Sabina
This thesis includes literature data on the topic Sources of Protein in Human Nutrition. In the first part, the protein itself is described in detail, as a chemical structure in human physiology, structural units of protein at the level of biochemistry of amino acids and their brief description in human physiology, recommendations on the use of daily protein intake for various social groups, detailed information on animal protein sources and plant origin. The second part of the work reflects the problems connected with the difficult situation of individual territorial groups under the threat of "protein hunger". This work provides examples that serve as a barrier in the sphere of food production.
Vliv úrovně metabolických procesů živočišného organismu na zastoupení lipidových složek mléka
Šulová, Marie
This bachelor thesis entitled ‘Influence of the level of metabolic processes of animal organism on the representation of lipid components in milk’ deals with physiological processes which influence synthesis, composition and release of lipids by secretory cells of the mammary gland through various metabolic ways. The introductory chapter focuses on the characteristics of the basic components in milk; individual fractions of milk fat are described in detail. The following chapters describe the synthesis of milk fat and lipid metabolism in the body of ruminants, namely cattle, and factors that influence the amount and composition of milk fat. A proposal of the methodology of experimental work describing division of animals into groups, feed diets and the overall progress of the experiment is a part of the thesis.
Screening of selected alkaloids of Fumariaceae and Amaryllidaceae families on Farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1
Hutníková, Miriama ; Pávek, Petr (advisor) ; Chlebek, Jakub (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Miriama Hutníková Supervisor: Prof. PharmDr. Petr Pávek, PhD. Title of diploma thesis: Screening of selected alkaloids of Fumariaceae and Amaryllidaceae families on the farnesoid X receptor and the G protein coupled receptor 1 Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acid receptor associated with G protein 1 (TGR5) significantly affect metabolic processes in the human body. The role of FXR in neuronal apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has also been discovered. The possible structural similarity of the small lipophilic molecules binding to these receptors and the alkaloids found in the plants Corydalis cava and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, as well as the richoften use of these plants in traditional medicine, represent a potential therapeutic intervention for these molecules. In our screening methods, we performed tests using a luciferase gene reporter assay to determine the ability of the alkaloids to interact with FXR and TGR5 in the HepG2 cell line. Many derivatives have shown a strong ability to antagonize FXR and TGR5 activated by obethicholic (OCA) or litocholic (LCA) acids in this assay. Some of the compounds also demonstrated the ability to potentiate the effects of OCA or LCA. Cytotoxicity...

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