National Repository of Grey Literature 3 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The role of cumulus cells during the maturation of mammalian oocytes
Meniuková, Kateřina ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
Cumulus cells in the ovarian follicles emerge by differentiation from somatic granulosa cells. They are located around the oocytes in stratified clusters and their innermost layer is called the corona radiata. Cytoplasmic microvilli of cumulus cells pass through zona pellucida to the proximity of the oolema, where formation of gap junctions enables signalling and metabolic codependency. Oocytes produce factors affecting processes in cumulus cells, including their metabolism and viability. By modulating the abundance of cyclic nucleotides in oocytes, cumulus cells allow the maintenance of meiotic arrest, providing time for oocytes to finish their growth and gain competence for maturation. Because oocytes have a very limited ability to process glucose, metabolic cooperation with cumulus cells enables them to gain the energy needed for processes associated with growth and maturation. Several metabolic pathways of glucose processing create energy substrates for the formation of ATP, which they then transport to the oocytes. They also regulate the amount of lipid droplets in oocytes and protect them from cellular toxicity. An increase in the concentration of luteinizing hormone in the follicle just before ovulation induces the transmission of the signal for cumulus expansion. Interruption of the...
The acrosome reaction in mammalian sperm
Picková, Jana ; Frolíková, Michaela (advisor) ; Kuntová, Barbora (referee)
The acrosome reaction (AR) of the sperm is a prerequisite for egg fertilization, which takes place in the female reproductive tract. The AR allows sperm to penetrate extracellular egg coats and fuse with the egg. At first, the sperm must undergo the process called capacitation, then AR is initiated and acrosomal content is released. While it is not clear, what initiates the AR, it is probably the egg's extracellular coats - the zona pellucida and cumulus cells, secreting progesterone and some other substances, which can initiate the AR. Lately, it was demonstrated, that in the mouse the most sperms undergo the AR in the upper isthmus of the oviduct. Only a few sperms reach the ampulla, but all of them can fertilize eggs. During the AR, the acrosomal content is released into the extracellular space. It was discovered, that the release of acrosomal proteins is not synchronous, soluble components are released faster from the acrosome than are acrosomal matrix proteins. Before the acrosomal release, G-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinase receptors activate phospholipases. Protein kinases are also activated, which results in the opening of Ca2+ channels in the acrosome and sperm plasma membrane and the release of Ca2+ . The increase of Ca2+ leads to actin depolymerization, membrane fusion, and finally,...
Sperm cell penetration and membrane fusion with oocyte during fertilization in mammals
Klimková, Veronika ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Frolíková, Michaela (referee)
Fertilization is a process involving multiple steps, which are in continuity and complement each other. Spermatozoa become competent to fertilize after capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction. Oocytes are surrounded by a layer of cumulus cells and give a signals for spermatozoa to activation and orientation. This study focuses on the latest knowledges about a roles of cumulus cells, production of chemoattractants and the possibility that cumulus cells induce the acrosome reaction after binding a novel sperm protein NYD-SP8 to the cumulus. It seems that progesterone induce the acrosome reaction and also is the best chemoattractant secreted by cumulus cells. Next I am focus on gamete fusion including the role of surface proteins such as Juno and IZUMO1. Key words: membrane fusion, cumulus cells, acrosome reaction, chemotaxis sperm, oocyte, fertilization