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Molecular mechanism of animal cells adaptation on hyperosmotic induced stress
Novotná, Jana ; Vávra, Jiří (advisor) ; Převorovský, Martin (referee)
Various types of cells animal tissues consist of need to adapt to intracellular as well as extracellular osmotic changes in order to maintain homeostasis. Hypertonicity (increased osmolarity) is one of the factors activating complex cellular reactions. In order to manage such stress, a cell needs to incorporate regulation pathways that can either regulate ion transporters through WNK kinases or activate gene expression of transporters of compatible osmolytes through the transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5. Physiologically exposed to hypertonic conditions are cells in renal medulla, cartilage, inner ear tissues, in specialised neurons or buccal epithelium. This work includes basic and current knowledge about the adaption of cells to increased osmolarity of outer environment. Key words: Hyperosmolarity, osmotic stress, TonEBP/NFAT5, WNK kinases, NF-κB, HSP70