National Repository of Grey Literature 23 records found  previous11 - 20next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Consumption of some micromycetes by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida) and its microanatomical and microbiological characteristics
Soukalová, Hana ; Smrž, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Hubert, Jan (referee)
Mycophagy should not be considered as a single and homogeneous category of nutritional biology due to the specific symbiotic chitinolytic bacteria associated with mites and fungi. To test interaction amongmites, fungi, and chitinolytic bacteria, experiments were conducted on the model species Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). Mucor sp, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium claviforme, P. griseofulvum, and Verticillium sp. were plated onto malt agar and offeredto T. putrescentiae in the laboratory. Mites were evaluated utilizing microanatomical examination based on histology, excrement analysis using fluorescence microscopy, bacterial plating, impact of mite homogenate on fungi in Petri dishes, reproduction of mites feeding upon each fungus, and isolation of associated bacteria inside mites. There were clear differences regarding the digested spores of different fungi passing through the gut and subsequently in the feces. Abundances of bacterial cells in excrement also corresponded to the fungi offered. The extracts from mites had chitinolytic activity, and the plated bacteria are known to produce exochitinases. The various feeding patterns observed were caused by differences in the cell wall structures of the tested fungi. The study illustrates that mycophagy in saprophagous mites does not consist of...
Bacteria associated to red poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)
Molva, Vít ; Hubert, Jan (advisor) ; Smrž, Jaroslav (referee)
The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) (Acari: Mesostigmata) is a hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry, cage birds, mammals and humans. Infection of poultry by poultry red mites (PRM) induce the decrease of egg production, weight gain and fitness. The massive infestation of the PRM can cause the death of the bird. The PRM is danger for human due to his ability of transport bacteria and virus of one host to the other. This review summarize the association of putative pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria with the PRM. There are studies, when PRM is considered as a vector of pathogenic bacteria. The transmission of Salmonella spp. has been observed frequently using PCR and/or cultivation. Listeria monocytogenes has been associated with the PRM only in one study, in which is not clear if the PRM really transport this bacteria or they just appear in the same time and the same place. The transport of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was in one work approved, but the demonstration of transport wasn't successful in other experiment. The role of the PRM in transport Bartonella quintana (causative agent of trench fever) is also not clear. The PRM and B. quintana appeared in the same time in the bird nest near the attic and there were attacked a family with high socioeconomic status by trench fever. However is...
Parasitic bacteria Arsenophonus in honeybee and its parasite Varroa destructor
Hejdánková, Sylvie ; Hubert, Jan (advisor) ; Smrž, Jaroslav (referee)
Arsenophonus is vertically and horizontally transmitted parasitic bacteria and strengthens its transfer through phenomenon called son killing. Arsenophonus has been detected in the arthropod hosts, insects, ticks and the garden spider Araneus diadematus. The aim of this study is detection parasitic bacteria Arsenophonus in honeybees and its parasite Varroa destructor. We find out that bacteria Arsenophonus is present in both hosts and it is identified as Arsenophonus nasoniae. Detection of bacteria Arsenophonus is discovered for the first time in Varroa destructor mites. We proved that the frequency of bacteria Arsenophonus in mites Varroa destructor is significantly higher than in honeybees. This study shows that the mite Varroa destructor could act as a vector for transmission parasitic bacteria Arsenophonus among honeybees. Results of this study could lead to the future application of Arsenophonus as a biological control for the mite Varroa destructor.
Paenibacillus larave destroying the honeybees (Apis mellifera) population
Haltufová, Kristýna ; Hubert, Jan (advisor) ; Kamler, Martin (referee)
Paenibacillus larvae is Gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria. This pathogen threatens one of the most considerable worldwide pollinators - the honeybee (Apis mellifera). It is causative agent of bee disease called American foulbrood. Although it affects only bee larvae, preferably on the first day of its live, it is highly contagious and could quickly destroy whole bee colony. Adult bees are not susceptible to infection, however due to huge spores resilient of P. larvae, they perform the role of main disease vector. Also the careless beekeepers make it easier to spread. Bee diseases are enquired by state veterinary administration, because honeybee is classified as a livestock. If disease evolves to clinic phase, infected bees and hive with all tools must be burned. American foulbrood is one of the most deleterious bee diseases. This bachelor thesis discuss about problems of whole disease and it is focused on the interactions between bacteria Paenibacillus larvae, hymenoptera insect honeybee and human factor presented by beekeepers, state veterinary administration and corresponding laws. Key words: Paenibacillus larvae, American Foulbrood, entomopathogenic bacteria, Apis mellifera, honeybee
The parasitic microorganisms in immunodeficient and healthy population of honebees (Apis mellifra)
Bičianová, Martina ; Hubert, Jan (advisor) ; Titěra, Dalibor (referee)
Immunodeficient honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies suffer from broad range of parasites including eukaryotic protozoa. Despite this fact, the eukaryotic parasites are still poorly documented in the Czech Republic. The presence of eukaryotic parasites (Nosema ceranae, Nosema apis, Crithidia mellificae and Apicystis bombi) was observed in different apiaries in the Czech Republic. The samples were taken in 9 apiaries in 53 beehives during the 2014/2015 season. From each beehive, 10 adult of honey bees were taken from the peripheral comb in triplicate. DNA was isolated from every sample of honey bees. The parasites were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. The treatment fall of parasitic mite Varroa destructor was obtained from beekeepers for season of 2014. Crithidia mellificae was detected by 5 types of specific primers (SEF, SER; SSU, SSU rRNA, Cyt b, Tryp cyt b) and positive amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The obtained sequences were compared with GeneBank and showed similarity from 98-100% to sequences of Lotmaria passim (Trypanosomatid). Crithidia mellificae was not detected. L. passim had prevalence of 79,2% and is reported in the Czech Republic for the first time. Primer Tryp-cyt b is recommended for the routine detection of L. passim. Nosema ceranae was...
Interactions "symbiotic" or "parasitic" bacteria Cardinium and Wolbachia with mites (Acari)
Hejdánková, Sylvie ; Hubert, Jan (advisor) ; Smrž, Jaroslav (referee)
The thesis reviews known information and findings describing the interactions of bacteria Candidatus Cardinium hertigii (Sphingobacteriales: Flexibacteraceae) and Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with mites (Acari). Both bacteria are known as symbionts or reproductive parasites and has been found in many species of arthropods. Here, the morphological characterization and localization of bacteria in their hosts and ecological interactions are revised and described. The main known interactions between these bacteria and mites lead to cytopasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and hybrid breakdown. The mites can be infected by both bacteria (Cardinium and Wolbachia), i. e. double infections, or by several strains of bacteria, i. e. multiple infections. The possible aplication of symbiotic/parasitic bacteria in the control of pest mites is discussed. The studied bacteria are suitable models for desription of the arthropod bacterial interactions.
The interaction between stored product arthropods and pathogenic microorganisms causing hazard effect tot he consumers
Wofková, Gabriela ; Hubert, Jan (advisor) ; Stejskal, Václav (referee)
The ecological feeding interaction between arthropods and pathogens causes damage of stored plant commodities for human food and animal feed. This damage leads to loss of quality and quantity of stored products. The stored commodities are inhabited by microscopic fungi and various bacteria. These moulds are producing mycotoxins. The bacteria in stored products include human pathogens and also bacteria which are able to transfer the genes of antibiotic resistance. Fungivorous arthropods are able to distribute them to the new habitats and indirectly influence mycotoxin contained in stored food. They also disperse some bacteria of pathogenic influence on human or bacteria able to transfer genes of antibiotic resistance in stored plant commodities. The study summarizes possible risk effects of microbial and arthropods pest interaction to human.
Community structure of soil saprophagous mites and their food selection
Jourová, Barbora ; Smrž, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Hubert, Jan (referee)
Community structure of soil saprophagous mites illustrates not only their diversity, but also it is able to characterize biotop as a whole. Such structure can be correlated with fluctuation of factors in with respect to the historical development and perspectives of biotope. Therefore, community structure exhibits the dynamics. The nutritional biology belongs to biological as well as to ecological parameters. This work presents the summary of existing knowledge about study of nutritional bi- ology and community structure of soil saprophagous mites and also critical analysis of methods studying soil mites. Keywords: moss mites, community strukture, food selection.
Methodology for evaluation of pest resistance to zoocides by biological methods and antiresistance staregies
Kocourek, František ; Stará, Jitka ; Zichová, Tereza ; Hubert, Jan ; Nesvorná, Marta
The methodology contains description of biological methods for evaluation of pest resistance to zoocides arranged according to world standards. The methods are verified on case studies on pests with proved resistance to insecticides or with high risk of selection of resistance in Czechia, as pollen beetle, Colorado potato beetle, cabbage seedpod weevil, cabbage stem flea beetle and codling moth. The methodology contains survey of basic principles of insect resistance management and proposals of antiresistant strategies for pest mentioned in the case studies. The methods for evaluation of resistance are utilized for resistance monitoring performed by state administration or other organisations. Recommendations given in antiresistant strategies are utilized for pest management in winter rape, potatoes and apples.
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The effect of oribatid mites on the composition of fungal community in pine litter
Černá, Kristýna ; Koukol, Ondřej (advisor) ; Hubert, Jan (referee)
4 Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether oribatid mites affect the variety of fungi in litter of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and if the dispersibility of fungi particles is related to oribatid mite species. To this end, I have prepared several semi-natural systems, in which I observed dispersion of fungi separately and in the presence of two oribatid mite species: Phthiracarus sp. and Adoristes ovatus. I assessed the experiment in two ways, by a cultivation of washed needles on agar medium and direct observation of needles under a binocular magnifier. In the next part of this study I isolated particles of fungi present on the surface and in the faeces of oribatid mites Adoristes ovatus, Porobelba spinosa and Spatiodamaeus verticillipes and compared it with the respective oribatid mite species. The most frequent needles fungi spread by oribatid mites were Oidiodendron maius var. maius, Oidiodendron muniellense, Oidiodendron setiferum, Umbelopsis ramanniana, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis and Mortierella hyalina. On the mites body surface the most commonly recorded fungi were Beauveria bassiana, Umbelopsis ramanniana, Cladosporium cladosporioides s.l., Cladosporium herbarum s.l. and unknown species of the genus Penicillium. Fungi species Acrodontium crateriforme, Umbelopsis ramanniana and...

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