National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  previous11 - 14  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Virulence factors of dermatophytes
Machová, Lenka ; Čmoková, Adéla (advisor) ; Dobiáš, Radim (referee)
Dermatophytes are a group of phylogenetically related microscopic fungi of the order Onygenales, the Arthrodermateceae family, capable of using keratin as a source of nutrition. Some species are important pathogens of vertebrates including humans. The aim of my bachelor thesis was to summarize the current knowledge about virulence factors of dermatophytes, taking into account their possible role in the host specificity. In the main part, I describe the virulence factors, pathogenesis mediating molecules, in the context of the individual stages of infection, such as adherence, degradation of the keratin, or suppression of the immune response. The study of these factors in general, deserves increased attention because their knowledge can lead to the development of targeted treatment. Some aspects of pathogenesis, e.g. keratolysis and fighting the immune system, are relatively well studied. However, we know almost nothing about the other factors, especially about those mediating host sensing and adherence, but they could provide important information on identifying the host specificity of dermatophytes. The final chapter is dedicated to a discussion about the potential ability of these virulence factors to influence the selection of the host. My thesis brings a comprehensive overview of the...
Epidemiology of selected zoophilic dermatophytes
Žárová, Štěpánka ; Čmoková, Adéla (advisor) ; Švarcová, Michaela (referee)
This bachelor thesis specializes on the epidemiology of skin infections caused by so called zoophilic dermatophytes, phylogenetically related species of pathogenic fungi of the order Onygenales (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) that have their reservoir in animals and are often transmitted to human. The first part of the thesis deals with the evolution and current state of the taxonomy of dermatophytes with special focus on the zoophilic species. The main part concentrates on five selected species, the description of their host spectra, population structure, clinical manifestation of infection, and changes in distribution among human patients in Europe. In this region the spectrum of the zoophilic dermatophytes has changed markedly since the 1950s. Especially apparent is a decline in the incidence of the species Trichophyton verrucosum after the implementation of vaccination in cattle. The rise of the species T. erinacei and T. benhamiae probably relates to the increasing popularity of pet hedgehogs and guinea pigs or to a newly introduced strain. Interesting is the high incidence of the species Microsporum canis in the Mediterranean and Russia. Thanks to the comprehensive approach including many epidemiological studies and current view on the taxonomy this thesis may form a valuable base for...
Molecular typization of isolates from Arthroderma benhamiae complex, a zoonotic agent of epidemic dermatophytosis in Europe
Čmoková, Adéla ; Hubka, Vít (advisor) ; Hrabák, Jaroslav (referee)
Arthroderma benhamiae has been almost unknown among clinical mycologists but it is a cause of around 40 % of dermatophytic infections according to current studies in the Czech Republic. The species is primarily transmitted to humans from guinea pigs and other rodents. The epidemiological situation is similar in other countries in Central and Western Europe. The reason of significant increase in the incidence of infections has not been identified yet, and no sufficiently informative molecular markers have been developed for typification of the species that could help to resolve the cause of this problem. For the purposes of this study, isolates (n=268) from cases of human and animal dermatophytoses from the Czech Republic, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and USA were selected. Ten variable microsatellite markers were developed and sequence analysis of two genetic loci (ITS rDNA and gpdh gene) were performed to reveal intraspecific variation. Phenotype was also studied at the level of micro- and macromorphology of the strains and growth parameters at several temperatures and on several cultivation media. Mating type idiomorph of each isolate was determined and mating experiments were performed by crossing pairs of genetically related as well as genetically distant strains. Sequence...
Molecular methods used for taxonomy and epidemiology of dermatophytes
Čmoková, Adéla ; Hubka, Vít (advisor) ; Hamal, Petr (referee)
In my bachelor thesis I have dealt with the role and aplication of the molecular methods in the taxonomy and epidemiology of the dermatophytes and the question of the species concepts in dermatophytes. In the first part, I focused on the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the recent species concepts and their problematic application in dermatophytes. The second part is focused on the molecular methods that used genetic markers for phylogenetic analysis and species delineation within dermatophytes, e.g. the PCR-RFLP method, PCR-fingerprinting and DNA sequencing. I have evaluated the dicrimination power of the particular DNA sequence loci to distinguish closely related species. In the last part, I have summarized the molecular methods that have been used in the typization at the intraspecific level, e.g. microsatelite analysis, PCR-fingerprinting, multilocus sequence typing.

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