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Manipulace zárodečných buněk jako nástroj pro management a produkci izogenních linií u ryb
Isogenic lines in fish represent a fundamental approach to control the genetic background of experimental animals. All individuals from a given isogenic line share the same genotype. So far, isogenic fish lines have been produced only by repeated uniparental inheritance - androgenesis and gynogenesis. Homozygous progeny is produced in the first generation of uniparental inheritance, and each homozygous individual produces a different isogenic line after second generation of uniparental inheritance. Despite optimized procedures for inducing uniparental inheritance, isogenic lines have been successfully produced in only a few species of fish. Doubled haploids after first uniparental inheritance have affected fitness as well as reproductive performance. Long-term maintenance is considerably problematic even when isogenic line is established already, due to low viability and poor reproductive characteristics. The situation is further complicated by the fact that isogenic lines are usually naturally monosex, thus uniparental inheritance must be re-used for further reproduction, or sex reversal needs to be applied in part of isogenic line. Several types of germ cell manipulation were performed in presented thesis. Protocols for cryopreservation of spermatogonia and oogonia have been developed and optimized to maximize post-thaw viability. The physiological activity of cryopreserved cells was confirmed by transplantation into a surrogate host. Cryopreserved and subsequently transplanted cells retained colonization activity comparable to non-frozen control germ cells. More importantly, male germ cells were able to transdifferentiate from oogonia. The success of transplantation was confirmed by detection of expression of genes associated with gametogenesis in carp by RT-PCR. In the next study, the results of cryopreservation experiments were followed, where sterile goldfish was identified as a suitable host for homozygous carp cells. Germ cells obtained from several homozygous individuals were individually transplanted into sterile goldfish. This procedure has a potential to increase the chance of producing a viable gamete for isogenic line production. Germ cells from homozygotes with affected gametogenesis can be transferred to fully viable recipients, thereby increasing the efficiency of isogenic line production overall. In addition, the use of a goldfish as a surrogate parent will ensure that part of the germline chimeras will be male and female, thus isogenic gametes of both sexes can be obtained and no further intervention for further reproduction of the isogenic line. The suitability of triploid zebrafish, which can potentially be used as recipients for cells from homozygotes to produce isogenic lines, has been confirmed for zebrafish. Spermatogonia and oogonia from diploid donors were transplanted into artificially induced triploid larvae. Donor-derived sperm was were obtained upon maturation of triploid recipients. Transplanted oogonia transdifferentiated into spermatogonia and spermatozoa with female sex chromosomes have been produced, which may be of interesting for further studies of sex determination in zebrafish. A new germline transfer technique has been developed using striped embryos. Donor cells were transplanted from the blastula stage to the swim-up larvae. With this approach, undifferentiated primordial germ cells were able to colonize the genital groove and initiate gametogenesis. After reaching sexual maturity, germline chimeras were obtained with gametes and viable progeny. Although the overall efficacy of this method was lower compared to other transplantation methods, this study may be of relevance for germline rescue in poorly viable embryos or lethal mutants.
Use of peracetic acid in pond aquaculture
The aim of the thesis was to verify use of peracetic acid (PAA) in production conditions for ectoparasites control in carp pond farming. First test was about evaluation of organic load in pond water on speed PAA decay in two temperature regime (11 15 and 21 °C). Results showed that between 3 6 hours from PAA application the concentration of PAA was under a half of the initial concentration (6 mg.l-1). Also statically important differences (p= < 0.05) were found in speed of decay between samples with organic load (3 samples from ponds) and samples without organic load (distilled and tap water) in both temperature regimes. Application of PAA during the transport of fish into the transport boxes was performed in three age categories (1, 2 and 3 years old common carps), where the fish were exposed for 60 90 minutes in 1.5 mg.l-1 PAA as Persteril 36. Parasitic examinations of skin and gills showed reduction of number protozoal parasites (Trichodina spp. and Apiosoma spp.) in individuals comparing with control. Against other detected parasites was PAA ineffective. Statistical evaluation showed significant (p= <0.05) decrease in prevalence only in 3 cases out of 19 in total. Long-term four days long fish bath of carps which were heavily infested by Saprolegnia parasitica in 1.5 mg.l-1 PAA an positive effect on the overall survival was found. In the control group mortality reached 100 % the third day of trial, in contrast with treated group where was Saprolegnia parasitica succesfuly eliminated and overall moratily was 40 %. Continual fourteen days long application of PAA by peristaltic pump did not proved.
Hematological changes in fish exposed to nitrites
The aim of the thesis was to determine the effect of nitrite on hematological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). After the fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrites were determined 48hLC50. For the main test only fractional concentrations of these values were used. For rainbow trout it was 8 mg.l-1 NO2?, for Nile tilapia 11 mg.l-1 NO2?. The exposure of both species lasted for 48 hours. From fish blood were made blood smears to determine the influence of nitrite on size changes of erythrocytes and hematological parameters were set also. The effect of nitrite on changes in the ultrastructure of erythrocytes was determined by the electron microscopy. The erythrocyte nuclei of rainbow trout showed significant (p <0.05) shrinkage. The images of the electron microscope showed an increased amount of changes, especially in the form of various units within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes, was also visible nuclei shrinkage. There was significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the amount of hemoglobin and significant (p < 0.01) increase in the concentration of methemoglobin levels of the exposed groups. In the number of erythrocytes and hematocrit were not detected any changes. Hematological parameters of Nile tilapia did not show any size changes in the measured parameters, no changes were detected in the count of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit values.

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2 Franěk, Robert
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