National Repository of Grey Literature 21 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Sudden release of toxic gas in built-up environment
Chaloupecká, Hana ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Zelinger, Zdeněk (referee) ; Efthimiou, George (referee)
The dissertation thesis deals with short-term gas releases (puffs) in an urban canopy studied utilizing wind-tunnel modelling. The urban canopy was composed of buildings with pitched roofs organised into closed courtyards. Into it, a ground-level point gas source was placed. The first part of the thesis is focused on specific definitions of puff characteristics. New definitions of puff arrival and departure times are presented. Various definitions of puff arrival time were applied on the same datasets and the results were compared. Moreover, it was studied how slight changes in determination of puff departure time can affect its values and other derived puff characteristics. The second part of the thesis is focused on modelling of probability density functions of puff characteristics with knowledge of sampling positions towards the gas source and mean values of concentrations valid for long-term gas sources. The found equations will be utilized in an operational model. The outputs in the form of the probability density functions of puff characteristics distinguish my model from the usually utilized operational models, in which only the ensemble-averaged puff outline and concentration field can be predicted.
Characterization of diode lasers and their application in monitoring of atmospheric pollution with photoacoustic detection
Cihelka, Jaroslav ; Civiš, Svatopluk (advisor) ; Strauch, Bohuslav (referee) ; Wild, Jan (referee) ; Zelinger, Zdeněk (referee)
4 Summary This thesis work was concemed with the spectroscopic characterization of a set of newly developed GalnAsSb/AlGaSb lasers. The spectral range of their laser emission was studied in dependence on temperature and drive current. The relation of threshold current versus temperature was also studied. These basic characteristics were obtained using the methods of FT spectroscopy, classic absorption technique, and photoacoustic detection of gaseous phase molecules. On the basis of the described measurements, the composition of the semiconductor material was optimized in order to reach the maximum overlap of the laser emission over the methane absorption lines. The possibilities of combining the GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb and InAsSb/lnAsSbP-based lasers with the FT spectroscopy were also studied and the modulated beam was used as the source of drive emission for the spectrometer. The diode lasers were used for the detection of a highly-resolved spectra of gases, and in connection with the photocoustic detection, low concentrations oť gaseous polltrtants could be determined, mainly with formaldehyde, ammonia and methane. Co-operation with the Department of Electrochemistry (the J. Heyrovsky lnstitute of Physical Chemistry) allowed us to use photoacoustic detection for a quantitative assessment of the ammonia...
Material properties of lithium fluoride for predicting XUV laser ablation rate and threshold fluence
Blejchař, T. ; Nevrlý, V. ; Vašinek, M. ; Dostál, Michal ; Pečínka, L. ; Dlabka, J. ; Stachoň, M. ; Juha, Libor ; Bitala, P. ; Zelinger, Zdeněk ; Pira, P. ; Wild, J.
This paper deals with prediction of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser ablation of lithium fluoride at nanosecond timescales. Material properties of lithium fluoride were determined based on bibliographic survey. These data are necessary for theoretical estimation of surface removal rate in relevance to XUV laser desorption/ablation process. Parameters of XUV radiation pulses generated by the Prague capillary-discharge laser (CDL) desktop system were assumed in this context. Prediction of ablation curve and threshold laser fluence for lithium fluoride was performed employing XUV-ABLATOR code. Quasi-random sampling approach was used for evaluating its predictive capabilities in the means of variance and stability of model outputs in expected range of uncertainties. These results were compared to experimental data observed previously.
Hydroxyl radical measurement in atmospheric pressure dimethyl ether-air laminar premixed flat flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy
Nevrlý, V. ; Dostál, Michal ; Bitala, P. ; Zelinger, Zdeněk ; Suchánek, Jan ; Válek, V. ; Klečka, V. ; Kubát, Pavel ; Engst, Pavel ; Vašinek, M. ; Wild, J.
Spectroscopic detection of hydroxyl (OH) radical and determination of its concentration in flames have an elusive history and considerable influence on combustion research. Electronic transitions in ultraviolet spectral region were extensively studied in this context and until recent time chemiluminescence or laser induced fluorescence of excited hydroxyl (OH*) radical is broadly used for absolute concentration and temperature measurement in flames.\nHowever, number densities of molecular species and population of relevant quantum levels in ground electronic state can be directly estimated from intensities of absorption lines observed by probing rovibrational transitions in infrared spectral region. Application of near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (NIR-TDLAS) for the given purpose was demonstrated in an earlier work of Aizawa et al. [1]. Following his pioneering studies summarized in [2], we further explored feasibility of NIR-TDLAS (especially 2f-WMS technique) for monitoring minor species within combustion experiments particularly when dealing with dimethyl ether (DME) flames. Here we report our first results of NIR-TDLAS measurements focused on hydroxyl radical detection in laminar premixed flame burning DME-air mixture under fuel-lean conditions.
High resolution infrared spectroscopy as diagnostic tool for combustion and plasma chemistry
Zelinger, Zdeněk ; Nevrlý, Václav ; Grigorová, Eva ; Bitala, P. ; Dostál, Michal ; Suchánek, Jan ; Kubát, Pavel ; Engst, Pavel ; Ferus, Martin ; Kubelík, Petr ; Civiš, Svatopluk
Monitoring of transient species within combustion experiments (laminar flames, shock-tubes, flow reactors, etc.) is still relatively challenging task especially if application of non-invasive, i.e. optical detection methods is required. High resolution infrared spectroscopy is based on observation of the fine rotation structure that accompanies vibration transitions and thus provides direct information essential to characterization of both molecular structure and reaction dynamics. Thanks to its outstanding advantage enabling unambiguous assignment of specific molecular system according to its spectral feature, it can serve as a helpful tool for exploring complex reaction mechanisms as well as chemical reactivity of individual species present in laboratory flames or plasmas.\nPrevious studies gaining new insights into combustion and plasma chemistry as well as our recent advances targeted towards application of high resolution infrared spectroscopy for species concentration measurement in laminar flames are summarized here below.
Wavelength modulation spectroscopy for multicomponent ana-lytics of biomass burning tracers
Dostál, Michal ; Válek, V. ; Suchánek, Jan ; Kristlová, E. ; Roupcová, P. ; Zelinger, Zdeněk ; Nevrlý, Václav ; Bitala, P. ; Vašinek, M. ; Kubát, Pavel ; Ferus, Martin ; Civiš, Svatopluk
The potential of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) for monitoring of several species produced by biomass burning is in focus of this work. The infrared spectra of selected molecules (HCOOH, C2H2, CH3CN, N2O, CH3OH, CH3COCH3) are measured in laboratory conditions and the selectivity and of this method is demonstrated.
Formation of organics molecules initiated by high-power density energy events in planetary atmospheres
Kamas, Michal ; Civiš, Svatopluk (advisor) ; Zelinger, Zdeněk (referee)
The focused laser beam delivered by the high-power laser system PALS was used for laboratory simulation of high-energy-density events in a planetary atmosphere. Several model gas mixtures were prepared to mimic the mildly reducing early Earth's atmosphere (CO-N2-H2O) as well as the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan and the strongly reducing early Earth's atmosphere (CH4-N2-H2O). In situ investigation of transient species generated by the laser-induced dielectric breakdown in the gaseous mixtures was performed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Final products of laser-plasma initiated chemical reactions were identified and determined by advanced mass-spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and absorption FT-IR spectroscopy. High-power laser system SOFIA was utilized to simulate in our laboratory a high-velocity impact into the icy satellites of the outer planets of the Solar system. OES was engaged in probing the plasmas produced by the SOFIA beam focused on ice surfaces (water, methanol, formamide), while final products were analyzed by means of gas chromatography (GC/MS) and mass-spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

National Repository of Grey Literature : 21 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.