National Repository of Grey Literature 10 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Roles of tubulin post-translational modifications in regulation of microtubule-based processes
Šliková, Pavlína ; Novák, Petr (advisor) ; Libusová, Lenka (referee)
Microtubular cytoskeleton plays crucial roles during diverse cellular processes, such as intracellular transport, cell motility and chromosome segregation during cytokinesis. Tubulin, the building block of microtubules, undergoes numerous post-translational modifications which affect microtubular dynamics and organization as well as their interaction with associated proteins. Understanding the role post-translational modifications play in the diversification of functions and properties of microtubules is key for our comprehension of the dynamics of the complex microtubule cytoskeleton. However, mechanisms behind the effect of post-translational modifications on microtubule cytoskeleton are not fully understood. In this work, we focus on the influence of post-translational modifications on microtubule polymerization and interaction with molecular motor kinesin-1. Using total internal fluorescence and interference reflection microscopy techniques, we here show that high levels of post-translational modifications on microtubules decrease the time of microtubule-kinesin interaction whereas binding affinity and median velocity are not significantly different on modified and unmodified microtubules. Further, we show that the absence of polyglutamylation on tubulin isotypes leads to a faster microtubule...
NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the process of oogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic development
Valentová, Iveta ; Nevoral, Jan (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
SIRT1 is a histone deacetylase from the sirtuin family that affects epigenetic and non- epigenetic targets. We can assume that the known SIRT1 substrates are involved in the regulation of gametogenesis and early embryonic development. Our hypotheses say SIRT1 is present in oocytes and early embryos and it plays a physiological role in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryonic development. A mouse model of a conditional knock-out line producing Sirt1-deficient oocytes was developed to verify our hypotheses. Oocytes and embryos were analyzed for SIRT1, its selected substrates and other markers by immunocytochemistry. We found out that the presence of SIRT1 contributes to oocyte quality through modulation of the chromatin histone code and stabilization of the spindle. Furthermore, the purely maternal origin of SIRT1 presents in both zygote pronuclei. Last but not least we discovered a significant effect of SIRT1 on early embryonic development, probably mainly due to its role in the activation of the embryonic genome. The results confirm our hypothesis that SIRT1 is present in oocytes and embryos mainly around chromatin. The results show that SIRT1 is a maternal factor determining oocyte quality and it is necessary for the embryonic genome activation.
The role of tubulin transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Bokvaj, Pavel ; Schwarzerová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Zažímalová, Eva (referee)
Tubulin is the basic building block of microtubules which ensure intracellular transport, morphological changes, the connection of proteins of metabolic pathways, the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and many other essential processes in plant cells. The localization of tubulin regarding nucleus is strictly controlled and during the interphase, tubulin is usually not present in the nucleus. As we previously showed, one of the exceptions of the presence of tubulin in the nucleus is the cold stress condition. Also, we discovered several plant-specific nuclear export sequences (NES) in tubulin molecules: one in α-tubulin and two in β-tubulin. In this work I found that double mutation of both functional β-tubulin NESes cause slight accumulation of the protein in the nuclei. However, the phenotype of the transgenic plants expressing β-tubulin with mutations is probably not affected by the presence of the mutated protein. The effect of the expression of the mutated β-tubulins was observed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells as well. The expression of β-tubulin carrying a single NES3 mutation or double mutation of both NESes bring changes of the division activity of the cells, while the NES2 mutation does not have any effect. Furthermore, it was discovered that the 0řC cold tr eatment does not cause...
Plant tubulin code
Ničová, Klára ; Schwarzerová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Cvrčková, Fatima (referee)
Microtubules, which are made of polymers of α- and β-tubulin, are an integral part of the cytoskeleton. Both types of tubulin share a considerable sequential homology across eukaryotic organisms. Tubulins are encoded by relatively large gene families. The expression of these genes produces different tubulin isotypes, some of which may exhibit different properties. Tubulin isotypes can be further posttranslationally modified. The best known posttranslational modifications of tubulin include acetylation, phosphorylation, tyrosination, polyglutamylation and polyglycylation. The tubulin code arises from the combination of expression of different tubulin isotypes and their posttranslational modifications. As a consequence, microtubules in cells can be composed of a "mixture" of different tubulins with distinct functions and properties. Even though the existence of the tubulin code has been proven in every model organism, plants included, the precise understanding of the meaning of microtubules being composed of different tubulins is still subjected to research. Much of the research on the tubulin code has been carried out on animal models. In contrast, relatively little is known about the existence of the tubulin code in plants. This theses summarizes current knowledge on the localization and regulation...
Interakce viru klíšťové encefalitidy s cytoskeletem hostitelských buněk
PRANČLOVÁ, Veronika
This thesis is focused on the role of host cytoskeleton, primarily microtubules and microfilaments, during tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH and tick cell line IRE/CTVM19. The importance of cytoskeletal integrity and dynamics to the viral replication cycle were examined using specific chemical inhibitors showing the virus utilizes studied structures in both cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed structural changes in the actin cytoskeleton during late infection in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, differences in expression of cytoskeleton-associated genes in both cell lines were compared. Several genes with up-regulated expression in SK-N-SH cells were identified during late infection.
The role of SIRT1 during in vitro maturation of oocytes
Landsmann, Lukáš ; Nevoral, Jan (advisor) ; Šolc, Petr (referee)
SIRT1 histone deacetylase acts towards many epigenetic and non-epigenetic targets. The involvement of SIRT1 in oocyte maturation is assumed and the importance of ooplasmic SIRT1 pool for further destiny of matured oocyte is strongly suggested. We hypothesized that SIRT1 play role of the signal molecule in mature oocyte through selected epigenetic and non- epigenetic regulation. We observed SIRT1 re-localization in mature oocyte and the association with spindle microtubules. In matured oocyte, SIRT1 shows a spindle-like pattern and spindle- specific SIRT1 action is supported decreasing α-tubulin acetylation. Based on the observation of histone code in immature and matured oocytes, we suggest that SIRT1 is mostly predestined for epigenetic mode of action in germinal vesicle (GV) of immature oocyte. Accordingly, SIRT1- driven trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine K9 in matured oocyte is considered to be an inheritance of GV epigenetic transformation. Taken together, our observations point out the dual spatiotemporal SIRT1 action in oocyte capable to be switched from epigenetic to the non- epigenetic mode of action readily depending on meiosis progress. Keywords: oocyte, SIRT1, histone, developmental competence, tubuline, epigenetics
Early embryonal development and morphogenesis of selected organ systems of the rediae and cercariae of Fascioloides magna.
Pankrác, Jan ; Kašný, Martin (advisor) ; Macůrková, Marie (referee)
Fascioloides magna (giant liver fluke) is a digenetic trematode with two-host life cycle and high veterinary importancy. Typical definitive host is a deer (Cervidae), but many other species from different families can be accidentally infected, for example sheep, goat or cattle. Very important role in the life cycle of F. magna has the first host - fresh water snail of the family Lymnaeidae. Three different life stages of F. magna, two of them with ability of reproduction - sporocysts and rediae develop in the body of snail. The third stage - cercaria is produced by rediae. Cercariae are able to escape from the snail, encyst and become infective for the definitive host. Since the second half of the 19th century many researchers studied the development of particular stages in the first intermediate host, but many characteristics of this process are still not fully understood. This thesis should reveal some of unanswered questions concerning to the reproduction and ontogenetic development of trematodes, which is presented on the examples of three organ systems - muscles, nerves and excretory system of rediae and cercariae of F. magna.
Microtubule-active drugs: mechanism of action and resistance
Dostál, Vojtěch ; Libusová, Lenka (advisor) ; Rösel, Daniel (referee)
Microtubular cytoskeleton represents a target for a myriad of diverse chemical compounds, referred to as microtubule-active drugs. Produced by certain plants, animals or microbes, the substances often effectively elicit cell death - especially in animals and also in plants to a certain extent, but never in species which produce them to defend against their predators. Nowadays, several microtubule-active substances constitute hallmarks of anti-cancer treatment and agricultural weed control. There is an enormous sum of knowledge about the action of paclitaxel (taxol), vinca alkaloids and colchicine, three best-known microtubule active compounds used in medicine, and new research often challenges the previously accepted theories. This work investigates the mechanism of action of microtubule-active drugs from the angle of biochemistry and cell biology, as well as from the physiological standpoint. Effects on microtubule levels and dynamics and the path towards the cell death are reviewed. In the last chapter, attention is given to drug activity in both animal and plant bodies and, finally, to drug-producing plant species which often show substantial resistance.
The role of tubulin transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Bokvaj, Pavel ; Schwarzerová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Zažímalová, Eva (referee)
Tubulin is the basic building block of microtubules which ensure intracellular transport, morphological changes, the connection of proteins of metabolic pathways, the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and many other essential processes in plant cells. The localization of tubulin regarding nucleus is strictly controlled and during the interphase, tubulin is usually not present in the nucleus. As we previously showed, one of the exceptions of the presence of tubulin in the nucleus is the cold stress condition. Also, we discovered several plant-specific nuclear export sequences (NES) in tubulin molecules: one in α-tubulin and two in β-tubulin. In this work I found that double mutation of both functional β-tubulin NESes cause slight accumulation of the protein in the nuclei. However, the phenotype of the transgenic plants expressing β-tubulin with mutations is probably not affected by the presence of the mutated protein. The effect of the expression of the mutated β-tubulins was observed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells as well. The expression of β-tubulin carrying a single NES3 mutation or double mutation of both NESes bring changes of the division activity of the cells, while the NES2 mutation does not have any effect. Furthermore, it was discovered that the 0řC cold tr eatment does not cause...