National Repository of Grey Literature 182 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Jedlé kvety a ich rizikové obsahové látky
Beták, Martin
This thesis deals with characteristic of edible flowers, its usage in gastronomy, risks that comes with consuming edible flowers and containig substances of edible flowers. This thesis contains 17 different plants with closer look of botanica description, containing substances of particular sieces and conditions for cultivation. There are described functions of speciffic containing substances such (primary metabolites, secondary metabolites) and their healing or toxic effect on human body . This thesis also deals with quantification of heavy metals and glycosidic substances.
Sledování vlivu dopravy na obsah těžkých kovů u modrých a bílých odrůd u dopravně zatížených komunikací
Marek, Josef
The diploma thesis is focused on determining the influence of transport on the content of heavy metals in white and blue grape varieties and their subsequent products from vineyards near traffic-laden roads and reference, traffic-free locali-ties and its relation to heavy metal content in air and soil in monitored vineyards. The analysis of elements in grapes and their subsequent products is performed in various stages of wine production, air analysis by analysis of weekly sampling and soil analysis by one-time sampling in the monitored vineyards in the period befo-re harvest. The instrumental method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the measurement.
Stanovení obsahu vybraných prvků ve stavebních a demoličních odpadech
Vítková, Michaela
The diploma thesis “Determination of the content of selected chemical elements in construction and demolition waste” begins with a literature research, where the first part describes the terms that are used in other parts of the thesis. The next part of literature research contains description of legislation related to the topic of the thesis. The aim of the thesis was to verify the concentration of arsenic, chromium, cadmium, lead, nickel and vanadium in the most produced construction and demolition waste, to compared the measured values with legal limits and to evaluate possible impacts on the environment and human health. X-Ray fluorescence analysis, the so-called XRF, was chosen to address the topic. The results show that the most of samples have higher content of chromium and arsenic. At the end of the diploma thesis is an evaluation of the fulfillment of aims and verification of hypotheses.
Heavy metals in drinking water sources and possibilities of their removal
Halašta, Tomáš ; Talašová, Lucie (referee) ; Biela, Renata (advisor)
This diplomat thesis focuses on heavy metals in drinking water sources and possibilities of their removal. The first part of the work is focused on getting know about heavy metals and their sources. Regarding the issue of heavy metals, their toxicity is essential, which i salso dealt with in this work. The next chapter discusses the possibilities of removing heavy metals from water sources. The second part of the work is dedicated to the experiment, which is focused on the removal of selected heavy metals nickel and cadmium using the removal process of adsorption. GEH and Bayoxide E33 were selected as adsorbent materials. This part of the thesis desribes the procedure of the experiment and its result.
Determination of selected metals in soils and mushrooms in the vicinity of the D1 highway.
The aim of the bachelor thesis was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in edible mushroom samples and underlying soils. The elements measured were mainly copper, iron and zinc, followed by manganese, strontium and rubidium. The literature search contains brief information on each element and their content in soils and fruiting bodies of mushrooms in other studies. The theoretical part also includes chapters on fungi, soils and their contamination, the effect of vehicular traffic on the heavy metal content of soils and the used analytical method, which was atomic absorption spectrometry. For the practical part, 24 samples of eight different species of edible mushrooms were collected in the autumn of 2020 and 2021 in the vicinity of the D1 motorway. As part of the collection, the soil beneath the mushroom was also sampled to a depth of approximately 15 cm. The samples were first perfectly dried, then processed by microwave digestion, and finally analysed by AAS. All work was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice. The results of the measurements were tabulated and processed statistically and graphically. Finally, they were evaluated in a discussion. The analysis showed that birch and birch goosefoot accumulate the least heavy metals in their fruiting bodies. The spruce budworm, the pink toadflax, the celandine and the brown mushroom accumulate metals on a large scale. In total, 4.2-45 dry weight Cu, 97,4-4166 Fe, 52,1-338,7 Zn, 3-61,4 Mn, 1,3-7 Sr and 7,7-300,9 Rb were measured in mushrooms. In soils, the values were as follows: 5,2-78,6 Cu, 2 965-41 983 Fe, 25,8- 174,2 Zn, 49,7-1 868 Mn, 6,2-25,2 Sr and 12,2-114,5 Rb in dry weight. These results show that strontium was the least represented heavy metal studied and iron was the most represented.
Vliv antropogenních aktivit na společenstva vodních organismů v horní části povodí Litavky
The degradation of the natural environment is considered to be a global problem. Due to the importance of water sources, preservation and improvement of their quality are one of priority interest of all society. This study deals with the reactions of aquatic organism groups like fish and benthic invertebrates to an anthropological effect in the Litavka basin. Researched part of Litavka is polluted by toxic heavy metals from past ceveral centuries of extensive mining and industrial smelting in its close proximity. It is also polluted by releasing wastewaters, which contain xenobiotics, trash, and decomposing organic matter. The Obecnický stream was chosen as a reference locality because it is the most similar to a clear natural habitat. It flows into the Litavka river in a spot, where the riverbed is channelised and its floodplain is occupied by toxic waste dumps. The Obecnický stream can be considered the most important water source in the upper Litavka basin regarding the current hydrological conditions. Autochthonous fish population in the upper Litavka basin suffer from several water abstractions, which change temperature and flow regimes. It was our effort, to evaluate the influences of these anthropological factors on aquatic biota, aiming to above-mentioned pollution types, and presence of the water reservoir situated on the Obecnický stream. Monitoring of organism and environmental data collecting (physically chemical parameters, NH4+ , NO2-, PO43-, bottom substrate, flow, and others) were always implemented parallelly. In the case of fish species groups, the resulting correlations show us the greatest impact of the temperature gradient and zinc concentration. We found out a negative correlation between zinc concentrations and abundances of brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario) and brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri). On the other hand, common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) was highly tolerant for this kind of pollution. The abundance of brown trouts decreased with increasing temperature and it seemed as beneficial for common minnow populations. There was also a shift in the community of invertebrates, namely total absence of three mayflies families (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae and Leptophlebidae), Gammaridae, the sphaerid clam Pisidium sp. and the river limpet (Ancylus fluviatilis). The inflow of the wastewaters was accompanied with considerable increase of biomass of common several cyprind species. Besides that, there was a high density of eruciform caddisflies of genus Micropterna and Halesus. Within particular benthic invertebrates, domination of dipteran insects, leeches (Hirudinea) and the freshwater waterlouse (Asellus aquaticus) was observed under the outcome of wastewaters.
Use of terrestrial gastropods in ecotoxicity tests
Fojt, Pavel ; Komendová, Renata (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The subject of this disertation is the use of terrestrial gastropods in ecotoxicity tests. Specifically, the use of a cosmopolitan terrestric gastropod Helix aspersa aspersa (syn. Cantareus aspersus or Cornu aspersum). The whole life cycle of this snail is very closely related the soil ekosystem. Here, the snails participates in some of the very important processes like the decomposition of the dead organic matter. This work is focused on the use of these snails to evaluate potential negative effect of some selected elements, which could, in different volumes, enter the soil ecosystem. The next task is to divide the ecotoxicity tests to different categories, depending on the life stage of this organism and then to compare the sensitivity of those life stages to different levels of contamination by certain pollutants.
Environmental contamination of mining areas and the possibilities of their phytoremediation
Pecina, Václav ; Pospíšilová, Ľubica (referee) ; Pavlů,, Lenka (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a global problem escalating in areas with mining. The search for solutions to this problem has been the subject of research for the past decades. This work is conceived as a set of four case studies focused on environmental pollution of mining areas and phytoremediation of polluted soils. The conclusions of all four studies are discussed in the context of the situation in Mongolia, where the investigation of this issue is at an initial stage. The results of the environmental pollution investigation in the mining areas showed (I) the unsuitability of the transformation of the mining-processing plant and the adjacent heap in Příbram into a forest park due to the persistent heavy pollution of the soil with the heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb and Zn) causing potential health risks for visitors and inhibition of the tree seedlings even after the implementation of the reclamation project and (II) the low level of soil pollution of the mining areas in Mongolia with no expected risks to the local population. The results of the phytoremediation studies confirmed the potential of Lupinus luteus L. and Festuca rubra L. in combination with specific additives (mainly biochar from willow chips, poultry feather ash and chalcedonite, respectively) for aided phytostabilization of soils polluted with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, and Cr(VI), respectively, and thus the potential for use in phytoremediation of heavy metal-polluted soils in mining areas. Regarding uncontrolled grazing in Mongolia, phytostabilization of heaps and making them inaccessible is necessary to reduce the risks of spreading contamination and intoxication not only of livestock. A promising species for phytoremediation in Mongolia may be Larix sibirica Ledeb.; a suitable type of mining waste management aided phytostabilization focusing on the use of potentially available manure and wood chips. Future research should implement experiments with identified plant species and additives and find other suitable local species capable of creating a continuous vegetation cover.
Determination of selected heavy metals in samples of great tits feathers by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Adamová, Simona ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Kozlík, Petr (referee)
EN As a result of human activity, a number of polluting substances are released into the environment. Heavy metals are one of the types of these contaminants. Their accumulation in the environment can have a negative impact on living organisms, including humans. For this reason, environment quality monitoring has become an important activity. Great tit (Parus major) can be a suitable bioindicator of the level of environmental contamination by heavy metals, which is acceptable mainly due to its abundance and occurrence in the vicinity of human settlements. This diploma thesis deals with the determination of six selected heavy metals in feather samples of these songbirds from several parts of the Czech Republic and other European countries. High pressure microwave mineralization in the presence of acids was used to prepare the samples. Selected heavy metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, which is also suitable for ultratrace analysis due its very low limits of detection.
Plant responses to combined arsenic and cadmium stress
Burešová, Andrea ; Mašková, Petra (advisor) ; Podlipná, Radka (referee)
Arsenic and cadmium are both non-essential, highly toxic and carcinogenic elements that often occur together in the environment. Given the frequent co-contamination of the environment, it is necessary to investigate both plant strategies for dealing with one metal(loid) and the mechanisms that lead to tolerance or, conversely, sensitivity in the presence of both elements. Simultaneous exposure to multiple toxic elements may lead to extensive plant damage, however it may also result in the increasing engagement and intensity of defence strategies. Contamination of the food chain through crops growing on contaminated soils is a major concern, one that poses a risk to both human and animal lives. The aim of this research field is to reduce accumulation and translocation to aboveground edible parts as much as possible, for example by understanding the mechanisms behind heavy metal accumulation and translocation, or by stabilising toxic elements in the soil, or by cleaning up contaminated soil. One method of clean-up is phytoremediation, which usually utilizes plants with high tolerance to toxic elements, called hyperaccumulators. The knowledge of how defence strategies and mechanisms are affected by the interaction of multiple elements is important for identifying plant species capable of activating...

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