National Repository of Grey Literature 479 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Effect of Exercise on Lipid Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue
Gazdová, Tatiana ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Tauchmannová, Kateřina (referee)
Obesity and old age are more prevalent among the current human population than ever before. Increased fat accumulation and hormonal dysregulation are common hallmarks of both these states. It is well reported that both states are associated with impaired lipolysis and glucose homeostasis as a result of disrupted metabolic pathway signalling. Current research offers exercise as a possible remedy, which could improve substrate handling in obesity and old age. Increased energy expenditure, myokine production, and improved insulin sensitivity are all potential benefits of exercise that could mitigate the health risks associated with obesity and ageing. In this work we aim to explore the effect of acute endurance exercise protocol on lipolytic activity of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots of lean and young, obese, and aged mice. By the addition of forskolin, isoproterenol, and insulin into the explant media we hope to assess the functionality of β-adrenergic signalling in our subjects. Post exercise lipolytic rate, measured as non-esterified fatty acid release, increased in both depots in all test groups. Glycerol release did not follow the same pattern. Additionally, lipolytic rate, measured as non-esterified fatty acid release, in visceral adipose tissue was higher in samples from...
Relationship between hand grip strength and cognitive function in older adults over 65 years of age
Čutková, Michaela ; Šteffl, Michal (advisor) ; Hráský, Pavel (referee)
Title: Relationship between hand grip strength and cognitive function in older adults over 65 years of age Goals: The main goal of this diploma thesis was to find out possible links between hand grip strength and cognitive functions in older adults over 65 years of age Method: As part of the master's thesis, a secondary analysis of data from the international cross- sectional study conducted within the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) project was performed. The participants of the study were divided into seven categories based on their educational attainment, separately for both men and women. Generalized linear models were calculated for each of the mentioned categories as part of the data analysis. Results: The survey included a total of 38,519 participants with an average age of 74.00 ± 6.7 years from 18 countries worldwide. More than half of the participants were women. In the data analysis, it was found that the most represented educational group among the participants was the third group with higher secondary education, as defined by the ISCED 2011 classification. The tables indicate that values of all percentiles increase linearly with higher levels of education. This result suggests that higher education is associated with better performance in the examined test....
Fraud on Seniors - Prevention and Solution of the Problem in Context of Social Work
This bachelor thesis deals with fraud against the elderly and prevention from the perspective of social workers and police officers. The aim of the thesis is to find out what the current prevention by social workers and the Police looks like. The aim of the thesis is also to find out what kind of fraud occurs most often. The theoretical part of the thesis contains definitions of basic terms related to this topic. They were defined with the help of professional literature. The known types of under-fraud used by the perpetrators are described. The practical part was prepared in the form of qualitative research. Semi-structured interview was used as a technique. The interviews were conducted with police officers from the Press and Prevention Department of the South Bohemia Region. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with social workers working in social services focused on this issue.
Leisure activities for seniors
This bachelor thesis focuses on leisure activities of seniors and highlights the differences in leisure time pursuits between seniors living in senior homes and those living in their own houses. The theoretical part of the thesis explains the concepts of seniors, aging, and changes in old age. It further examines preparation for old age, adaptation, aging demographics, senior needs, and senior motivation. The empirical section includes a questionnaire survey supplemented by four structured interviews.
Omega-3 fatty acid consumption in women over 80 years of age and its relation to physical activity and cognitive function
Mikošková, Helena ; Daďová, Klára (advisor) ; Majorová, Simona (referee)
Author: Bc.Helena Mikošková Title: Omega-3 fatty acid consumption in women over 80 years of age and its relation to physical activity and cognitive function Objectives: To compare dietary patterns of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) consumption in physically active and inactive women and to investigate the relationship of this consumption with cognitive function levels. Methods: Thirty-eight women aged 80 to 87 years (mean 82.9±2.13) were included in the study and divided into 2 groups. The first group (N=20) consisted of women who used to be active in middle age (30-60 years of age and performed a minimum of 2.5 hours/week of physical activity (PA)). The second group (N=18) consisted of inactive women who performed PA in less than the above range in middle age. Feeding habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and cognitive function was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Path Test, Verbal Fluency Test (animals), and Boston Naming Test-30. Results: Dietary habits with respect to omega-3 FA consumption did not differ between groups. It was also found that less then 50% of all women interviewed followed the general recommendations for fish consumption. No relationship was found between consumption of omega-3 FAs from natural sources and...
Level of physical activity in cognitively superior elderly women
Valtová, Nela ; Daďová, Klára (advisor) ; Křivánková, Markéta (referee)
Title: Level of physical activity in cognitively superior elderly women Objectives: The aim of the thesis is to describe the level of physical activity (PA) in cognitively superior senior women and compare it with the PA level of women of the same age. Another aim is to investigate the relationships between PA, anthropometric parameters and cognitive functions in this group of elderly women. Methods: A total of 90 women older than 80 years (mean age 83.4±3.3 years) who declared regular PA in middle age were included in the cross-sectional survey. The testing had the form of an interview with the collection of many anamnestic data, a questionnaire survey and measurement of the waist circumference. The method of determining the current level of PA was the IPAQ-E questionnaire. The MMSE, RAVLT, BNT-2, TMT and VF tests were used to assess cognitive functions. Results: Women over the age of 80 spend an average of 5.03 ± 2.3 h/day sitting, 181 ± 127.5 min/day walking, 167.4 ± 97.8 min/day moderate PA (on 5 days a week), 48 ± 84.4 minutes/day of high PA (on 1 day per week) and their average energy expenditure is 8560.2 MET minutes per week. Based on the evaluation of cognitive functions, it was shown that 33% of women with the status of cognitive SuperAging (SA) are in the research group. According to the...
Obesity in senior population in homes for the elderly
Jančarová, Kateřina ; Káňová, Marcela (advisor) ; Petřeková, Karin (referee)
The thesis deals with obesity in senior homes and homes with special regimes. The aim of the thesis is to determine the distribution of obese clients in social facilities, to identify the presence of sarcopenia among obese clients, the reduction diet administered, and the education of clients about reduction diets, obesity, and its consequences. The theoretical part of the thesis describes the issues of aging, obesity, and sarcopenia. In the practical part, the presence of obesity is confirmed among enrolled clients based on BMI calculation, calf circumference, and waist/hip ratio. The frequency of android and gynoid obesity is determined. Furthermore, the presence of sarcopenia among obese clients is identified based on handgrip strength measurement with a dynamometer and measurement of muscle and fat tissue using the Tanita device. The presence of a reduction diet and client education on diet and obesity risk is identified. The menus and their nutritional composition are evaluated. A questionnaire is assessed, with questions focused on the clients' lifestyle, especially weight loss during life, eating habits, and physical activity. Based on the knowledge gained from theory and practice, it was assumed that obese clients form a minority of seniors in social facilities, but the majority of them...
Prevention of cellular aging in vitro
Kubovčák, Matej ; Černý, Jan (advisor) ; Ryšánek, David (referee)
This bachelor thesis explores foundational components of the aging process and their importance in cell culture systems. Signaling pathways controlling these processes are discussed, and several attractive targets were identified to be potentially developed as interventions. Aging is described within the evolutionary paradigm to provide a global framework for understanding the various aging processes and their explanation. Several models in nature were found to provide evidence that aging interventions can be successful and could therefore serve as a source of inspiration. Immunological context is provided to underline its importance in vivo, and the immune system-specific longevity mechanisms are elucidated for potential exploitation. Loss of cellular identity is identified as an essential detrimental factor in cell culture and is connected to the foundational aging mechanisms. This thesis can serve as a stepping stone for conducting research on better cultivation methodologies, thereby opening doors to technologies such as cultivated meat and bioartificial organs requiring unprecedented cell expansion. Keywords aging, aging reversal, cellular identity, in vitro cultures, stemness
Host-microbiota, pro-inflammatory immunity and physiological senescence in wild birds
Těšický, Martin
Triggered by microbial ligands, inflammation serves as a "double-edged sword" to fight infections on the one hand, but on the other hand causing tissue damage due to oxidative stress if it is dysregulated. For example, chronic inflammation can contribute to inflammaging, which is now widely regarded as one of the causes of ageing. In my interdisciplinary dissertation, my colleagues and I investigated three interrelated aspects of inflammation, using an evolutionary framework and various free-living birds as models: (1) ecological and evolutionary determinants of gut microbiota (GM) composition and diversity, a driver of wild bird immunity, (2) diversity in immune genes affecting inflammatory responses in wild birds and (3) inflammation-related physiological senescence in a free-living passerine bird, the great tit (Parus major). Firstly, using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding, we revealed high intra- and interspecific variation in passerine gut microbiota (GM) dominated by the major phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although in mammals GM depends strongly on host phylogeny and diet, in birds we found only moderate effects of phylogeny and very limited effects of host geography and ecology on GM composition. While microbiota diverged between the upper and lower...
The Influence of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Social Contacts of Seniors.
The goal of the thesis is to find out what impact the Covid-19 pandemic had on social contacts among seniors. We, among others, examined how often seniors were able to meet within a residential care facility. We were also interested in how often seniors from residential care facilities had contacts with their families and friends. The research part was processed on the basis of a qualitative survey and implemented by means of semi-structured interviews with 8 communication partners, namely seniors in nursing home of the Social Assistance Centre in Vodňany. The communication partners were chosen on the basis of the simple purposive sampling method, so all of them met the criteria set in advance, so that the sample set complied with the goal of the bachelor thesis. The obtained data was processed by means of open coding. The codes created this way were consequently divided into certain categories. Eight categories arose, one of which has three subcategories. To make it clear some parts of the research part are accompanied with pictures with diagrams. The fact that the Covid-19 pandemic influenced the social contacts among seniors and that social isolation of these people arose was discovered on the basis of the research of this bachelor thesis. The contacts with families were also strongly limited and were particularly substituted by telephone communication, which certainly cannot be as valuable as a personal contact. The thesis can serve as informational material for the public but also for social workers in nursing homes, to show how important social contacts are for seniors.

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