National Repository of Grey Literature 46 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Friendships and partner relationships in young adults with autism spectrum disorder
Slavíčková, Kateřina ; Sotáková, Hana (advisor) ; Kucharská, Anna (referee)
This master thesis examines friendship and partnership relationships in young adults with autism spectrum disorders. In the literature section, the definition of autism spectrum disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-V manual is presented, the specific areas of autism spectrum disorders are discussed, with attention being paid mainly to the social area, and the chapter also focuses on diagnosis and support options. The next chapter covers general aspects of friendship and specifics in friendships for people on the spectrum. The chapter on partner relationships is divided in the same way. The literature section also includes specifics of relationships in the online world and concludes with a brief summary. The research section begins by introducing the research objectives and research questions. The research design was conceived as qualitative. The research was conducted in two phases, the first of which was an online questionnaire. The second phase then consisted of semi- structured interviews that aimed to deepen the findings from the questionnaire. Both phases of the research were evaluated qualitatively using the thematic analysis method. The results of the thesis describe how people on the...
Sledování integrace koní do stáda v aktivním ustájení
The aim of this diploma thesis was to prepare an overview of the current scientific findings regarding the ethology of horses, housing technology and manifestations of stress in horses. Another goal was to prepare an own observation, the aim of which was to evaluate the course of familiarization of newly arrived horses placed in the integration box with the new herd during the first three days and to evaluate the importance of the integration box. A total of three young horses up to the age of 3 were monitored, integrated into an active stable in an integration box with the use of camera recordings. Each horse was monitored continuously for the first 3 days of integration. The duration of individual categories of behavior was recorded in minutes. A total of 216 hours were evaluated. The data was processed in Microsoft Excel. Subsequently, a statistical evaluation was performed using the chi-square test and the paired t-test. For all horses, the frequency of social behavior was found to be highest on the first day and then decreased, on average from a total of 174.7 minutes on the first day to 84 minutes on the third day. However, a difference was noted between the observed individuals in the length of the total time spent on social behavior (110 min, 197 min and 766 min). This difference was confirmed as statistically significant (p-value = 0.004). During the first three days, the proportion of locomotion decreased on average from 207.3 minutes on the first day to 144.3 minutes on the third day, and on the contrary, the time spent on eating behavior - eating increased from an average of 342.3 minutes on the first day to 497.7 minutes on the third day and rest time on average from 333 minutes on the first day to 450 minutes on the third day. When comparing the behavior of horses during the day and at night, social behavior, locomotion and alternative posture during the day predominated. In the case of social behavior (average 73 and 47 min), this difference was not conclusive (p-value = 0.12 > 0.05), on the contrary, the average time of locomotion (average 118 and 75 min) and alternative posture (average 144 and 75 min) differed significantly between day and night (p-value = 0.02 < 0.05). The results of the work show that during the first three days in the integration box, the signs of stress subside in horses. The influence of the individual and his temperament on the course of integration in the first three days was confirmed. Thus, the use of an integration box when introducing horses appears to be suitable for reducing stress and for safer inclusion of the horse in a new herd with subsequent habituation to an active stable.
Druhově specifické hejnové chování ryb ve sladkovodní nádrži.
HOLUBOVÁ, Michaela
This study handles the problematics of schooling behaviour in the pelagic habitat of a temperate freshwater reservoir by the means of underwater visual survey via underwater camera. UVC proved to be a great tool for obtaining behavioural patterns which are rather poorly studied in the pelagic zone. Four species were identified as school forming. Naturally, schooling tendency varied in between species mostly due to proneness to predation, increasing with vulnerability to a predator. Heterospecific schools were quite common, particularly in vulnerable species sharing a space and food niche with species less attractive to predators.
Kdo je boss teď? aneb dopad farmaka sertralinu na hierarchii raků
MAREŠ, Josef
Pharmaceuticals' pollution of open waters is a current threat to aquatic organisms. The development of pharmacies and increased consumption of drugs leads to a burden on the aquatic environment with dangerous pollutants. Due to the fast and stressful lifestyle, the consumption of antidepressants increases significantly in the majority of the human population. After consumption and excretion, antidepressants and other drugs enter groundwater and surface water through wastewater treatment plants, which can have a secondary effect on non-target organisms. This master thesis assesses the possible impact of the commonly used antidepressant sertraline on the mutual social behavior of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis). The experiment was based on monitoring the behavior of different pairs of different crayfish. The created dyads assessed mutual interactions between control crayfish, crayfish exposed to sertraline, and reciprocally between both crayfish groups. Three weeks before monitoring, crayfish were exposed to an environmentally relevant sertraline concentration of 1 g?l-1. The results were evaluated by sensory assessment according to available methods, and subsequently, the statistics were assessed. No group of crayfish observed showed a significant difference in behavior. Thanks to the initial phase of experiments of this type, we cannot determine with certainty from the results that sertraline does not affect the social behavior of marbled crayfish. However, along with other antidepressants, sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is undoubtedly a potential threat to the environment.
Vliv hřebce na sociální úspěšnost hříbat
Paternal behaviour in mammals could play an important role in the development of young offspring. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of interactions between colts and the stallion (father) in the early phase of their development focusing on the subsequent behaviour and social position of these young stallions in the bachelor group. We found that the behaviour of stallions is age-dependent and the individuals born to primiparous mothers are more dominant. In addition, we have not confirmed that the father is a behavioural model for his male offspring. In conclusion, we suggest that the most important factor which affects a social behaviour of young stallions is their personality.
Oxytocin and Social Behavior in Laboratory Rodents
Aruťuňanová, Patricie ; Svoboda, Jan (advisor) ; Růžička, Jiří (referee)
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide hormone that is primarily known for its neuromodulatory effects on the female reproductive system. It evolved together with vasopressin from vasotocin and is synthesized in the hypothalamus, specifically in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei from where it travels through the neurohypophysis into the bloodstream. Its peripheral effects cover a whole range of physiological processes, from inducing labor to easing anxieties. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor whose agonists and antagonists are abundantly used in obstetrics. Recently, this hormone has been associated with social behavior, for instance, there have been shown its effects on agonistic behavior in laboratory rodents. In these species, it is responsible for the right course of copulation, just as it stimulates parental behavior in them. It also has a positive influence on their social memory. Oxytocin is a promising drug for neuropsychiatric diseases with social deficits.
Behaviour of the Elephant ( Elephas maximus ) in ZOO Prague
Ouřadová, Petra ; Řezníček, Jan (advisor) ; Kopřivová, Kateřina (referee)
This bachelor thesis describes daily routine and elements of social behavior of Asiatic Elephants in ZOO Praha. The observation period was from summer 2011 to spring 2012. The paper starts with Proboscidea literature analysis (history, occurrence, anatomy and reproduction). In the next part behavioral aspects are analyzed. At the end a summary of the research is presented. Daily manners of Prague elephants are compared to manners of elephants living in the open. The work is focused on myths which are known among our society. Presented information is supported by interview with elephant keeper from ZOO Praha. Keywords: Indian elephant, social behavior, stereotyped behavior
Social organization and mating systems in the genus Myotis
Wnuková, Lucie ; Jahelková, Helena (advisor) ; Lučan, Radek (referee)
We can find a big variety of social organizations and mating systems in order Chiroptera. The most common is polygamy where paternal care is typically missing. In temperate zone, there is seasonal change of climate what is influencing sociality and mating of Chiroptera which are adopting so called temperate cycle. This cycle is characteristic also for our species Myotis. During summer, females live in nursery colonies to make the nursing of the youngsters easier. In every specie of this order living in Czech Republic females are having only one cub. Shelters of the nursery colonies are for example in the cavities of trees, buildings or other gaps. Myotis myotis and M. Blythi, which originally occupied the caves, in our conditions are living in buildings. Number of individuals in the colony varies and depends on type of shelter. In species M. bechsteinii, M. nattereri and M. daubentonii, female colonies are disrupted into several sub-groups living in different shelters. This social organization is called fission-fusion. Even though males are being solitary during this period of time, we can find them also in female groups or they can form an only male group. Mating occurs usually in autumn when nursery colonies break up, probably during swarming. In winter, they are hibernating in their hibernacula which are...
Social behavior and communication in a laboratory rat and autism models
Tučková, Klára ; Petrásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Pohanová, Petra (referee)
Social behavior of the brown rat as an animal living in a hierarchical collonies is very diverse and developed, which remains the same with the domestic laboratory rat. Rats communicate not only via odors, but also via various types of vocalizations, which express stress, pain or anxiety or on the other hand positive emotions and also communication during any social contact. Because of complex social behaviour and communication, rat is a suitable model organism for research of human mental disorders such as autism. This thesis gives an overview of natural social behaviour of rats, behavioural methods used for testing of animal models and describes selected rat models of autism induced through various types of interference (natural mutation, gene inactivation, virus infection and chemical disruption of brain development) and compares their impact at the level of rat behaviour. Key words Rat, social behaviour, communication, vocalization, experimantal tasks, model organism, autism, models of autism

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