National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Analysis of sensory and toxicologically important compounds in beer
Vrzal, Tomáš
One of the most relevant group of toxicologically significant compounds in beer are N-nitrosamines. In this thesis, the attention was paid especially on non-volatile nitroso compounds whose concentrations in beer, a chemical structure, and a biological effect has not been known yet. For the reason of the lack of knowledge regarding this compound group, the method for their sensitive detection by chemiluminescence detection after gas chromatographic separation was developed. This method permits a classification of detected nitroso compounds to different groups (N-nitroso, C-nitroso, and combination of C-nitroso and nitro) and distinguish them from interferences. The method is based on recording of a pyrolytic profile of each chromatographic peak, the profiles are then processed by discriminant analysis. The method has been developed for finding and structural identification purposes of these unknown compounds. Its application on an artificially nitrosated beer sample, together with gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analysis, led to structural identification of several representatives of nitroso compounds. Sensory active compounds in this thesis are represented by carbonyl compounds and fatty acids. Carbonyl compounds - furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural - were used during the development...
Analysis of sensory and toxicologically important compounds in beer
Vrzal, Tomáš ; Čabala, Radomír (advisor) ; ADAM, Martin (referee) ; Feltl, Ladislav (referee)
One of the most relevant group of toxicologically significant compounds in beer are N-nitrosamines. In this thesis, the attention was paid especially on non-volatile nitroso compounds whose concentrations in beer, a chemical structure, and a biological effect has not been known yet. For the reason of the lack of knowledge regarding this compound group, the method for their sensitive detection by chemiluminescence detection after gas chromatographic separation was developed. This method permits a classification of detected nitroso compounds to different groups (N-nitroso, C-nitroso, and combination of C-nitroso and nitro) and distinguish them from interferences. The method is based on recording of a pyrolytic profile of each chromatographic peak, the profiles are then processed by discriminant analysis. The method has been developed for finding and structural identification purposes of these unknown compounds. Its application on an artificially nitrosated beer sample, together with gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analysis, led to structural identification of several representatives of nitroso compounds. Sensory active compounds in this thesis are represented by carbonyl compounds and fatty acids. Carbonyl compounds - furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural - were used during the development...
Preparation and testing of capillary packed column sephadex G-10
Tolasz, Jakub ; Sobotníková, Jana (referee) ; Coufal, Pavel (advisor)
Sephadex is a common sorbent in biochemistry for separation of molecules of a wide range of molecular masses. Sephadex is also used for purification or desalination of isolated proteins. Up to now, the gel chromatography has been performed in wide separation columns. Therefore, the isolation techniques for proteins had to be very effective to isolate enough proteins as a sufficient amount of the sample. The preparation and application of a capillary separation column packed with sephadex could decrease the needed sample amount and enable work with hardly isolable proteins obtained only in small quantities. In this bachelor project, the capillary column was packed with sephadex using the slurry packing procedure. The principle of monolithic columns was used to create a gel in the column. The column was packed in organic solvent firs, and then hydrated when flushing with water to generate the gel.
The Use of Separation Methods for the Study of Selected Drugs and Pesticides in Water
Burešová, Jitka ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work is focused on the study of penetration of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. The aim was to develop and verify the optimal method for long-term monitoring of the occurrence of selected pesticides and pharmaceuticals in surface waters. Two frequently used analgesics ibuprofen and diclofenac, and carbamazepine that is used to treat epilepsy, were chosen from the group of drugs. A group of 41 pesticides were selected for monitoring too. The attention was focused on a group of urea pesticides and phenoxyacetic acids, as well as on selected pesticides falling to the group of priority substances or identified as environmental quality standards. Some of pesticides were selected because their consumption in the Czech Republic exceeds 30 tons a year. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC / MS / MS) was used for the determination of selected analytes in surface waters. Two optimized analytical method were developed. Ten analytes were determined in negative ion mode and 34 analytes in positive ion mode. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for purification and concentration of the samples. Developed methodology was validated and used for monitoring of selected compounds in samples of surface waters from the Morava River basin. Samples were collected on the rivers Morava and Svratka monthly for two years. Samples from the river Blata and stream Nivnička were collected for one year. Surface water samples were also collected from the river Litava. Four samples were taken throughout the length of the flow during one day. Smaller streams were chosen for monitoring because of the probability of occurrence of pesticides. They flow abundantly agriculturally cultivated areas. Drugs ibuprofen and diclofenac were detected in all taken samples, carbamazepine mostly. Among the most commonly occurring pesticides were bentazon, diuron, isoproturon, carbendazim, MCPA, MCPP, propiconazole, tebuconazole and 2,4-D.
The Usage of Separation Methods for Research of Biologically Active Substances in Waters
Vydrová, Lucie ; Friedl, Zdeněk (referee) ; Opatřilová, Radka (referee) ; Chýlková,, Jaromíra (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Pharmaceuticals are biological active compounds with different functional groups, physico-chemical and biological properties. These chemical compounds are called as “new contaminants” which cumulate in various environmental components. These contaminants input to environment from industrial processes, hospitals and health care institutions or household sources and these pollutants can to negatively interact with environmental components. Pharmaceuticals are separated according to structure and their effects to live organisms. On the basis of drug consumption in Czech Republic the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most using pharmaceuticals, because these drugs can be obtain without prescriptions. The choosing analgesics for study were monitored in waste water from waste waters treatment plant (WWTP Brno – Modřice) and in surface water from two sampling sites of river Kretinka. Pharmaceuticals were monitored in surface waters in Czech Republic, in Scotland (river Thurso) and in Taiwan (river Erren, Agongdian, Yanshuei and canal of Tainan) Solid phase extraction (SPE) is used for extraction of study pharmaceutical from water system. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection or mass spectrometry was used for determination of drugs in surface waters from Czech Republic. The water samples from Scotland and Taiwan were analysed and the high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was used for determination of pharmaceuticals. The method of HPLC/MS enables the determination of study compounds in the very low range of concentrations (ng ? l-1). All monitored pharmaceuticals were identified and quantified in water samples from river Kretinka in Czech Republic, river Thurso (Scotland) and rivers Erren, Agongdian, Yanshuei and canal of Tainan in Taiwan and the obtained data were compared.
Organohalogenic compounds - contaminants of environment
Kociánová, Veronika ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers belong to group of brominated flame retardants. Important property of these substances is their ability to reduce flammability or to prevent ignition of many products of daily use, such us televisions, carpets, mattresses and many others. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers however are characterized by high persistence and lipophility, leading to their accumulation in the environment. In recent years, concerns about the effects of organic halogen compounds on human health, suggesting their inclusion in the list of persistent organic pollutants in 2009. These contaminants are capable of long-range transport and accumulation in the environment. Therefore, the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers is systematically observed in the abiotic and biotic components of the environment worldwide. Their presence has been demonstrated in areas that are clearly very distant from sources of contamination. This thesis is focused on the use of gas chromatography to assess the level of contamination of selected components of the environment, especially of soil. For these purposes was used method of gas chromatography with electron capture detection mass spectrometry.
Non-target screening of organic pollutants in waters and sediments
Hamalčíková, Veronika ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
This master thesis deals with the potential influence of the waste dump Hrádek u Pacova and the wastewater treatment plant Brno – Modřice on surroundings using the optimized non-target screening method of organic pollutants in water and sediments. The experimental part is focused on the identification of organic compounds in samples of ground water from monitoring wells, the surface water from stream and pond and in sediment samples collected from streams in the vicinity of municipal waste dump. Organic compounds were also identified in water and sediment samples from the river Svratka near the municipal waste water treatment plant Modřice. The sequential liquid – liquid extraction was used for the isolation of organic compounds in water samples. Organic compounds in sediment samples were isolated by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) with subsequent fractionation of the extract using column chromatography. Final analysis determination was performed using comprehensive orthogonal two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCxGC-TOF MS).
Determination of polybrominated diphenylethers in matrices from fireplaces
Čechová, Eliška ; Hroch, Martin (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers belong among the persistent compounds, which have been classified as priority organic pollutants. In environmental compartments are observed in the past decade. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are detected in abiotic and biotic matrices. For this dissertation were chosen the matrixes from seats of fire, taken in various localities of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Their analysis should demonstrate whether they in these specific matrices remain. There were examined following polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners: BDE- 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183. For their isolation from the matrix were used three different extraction techniques, namely ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. For the determination was chosen method of GC / ECD. In this dissertation are also described basic chemical, physical and environmental properties of BDE, including other analytical methods that can be used to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental compartments.
Separation of rigid particles from heterogeneous suspension
Prax, Ondřej ; Debreczeni, Ondřej (referee) ; Pochylý, František (advisor)
The bachelor thesis contains a literature search dealing with the separation of solid particles from a heterogenic suspension. The first part is aimed at separation methods. Then, a chapter follows dealing with separation devices, which are used in waste water treatment plants. A more detailed description of the separator used for the separation of sand from waste waters is part of this paper. The described device serving to separate solid particles from a suspension uses the combination of sedimentation and separation methods. To visualize the separator a 3D model in Autodesk Inventor Professional 9 device was used in the presented paper.
Influence of the municipal waste dump on the environment
Hamalčíková, Veronika ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the potential influence of the waste dump on the environment, particularly on the water quality close to waste dump. The experimental part is focused on the identification of organic compounds in samples of water from monitoring wells and in samples of surface water from stream and pond. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was employed for the isolation of organic compounds and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) was used for their analysis. Obtained results were evaluated and their interpretation was done.

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