National Repository of Grey Literature 42 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Highly ordered cobalt oxide thin films for model catalysis
Ronovský, Michal ; Mysliveček, Josef (advisor) ; Švec, Martin (referee)
Hydrogen processing is becoming increasingly important not only in the production of electricity but also during its accumulation. One of the energy storage options are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC). The main drawback of LOHC is the need for a large amount of thermal energy to release molecular hydrogen. We can bypass this issue using heterogeneous catalysis by transferring hydrogen from LOHC to acetone and using the produced 2-propanol (IPA) in the fuel cell. This innovative strategy of getting electri- cal energy from LOHC can be potentially energetically neutral. In this work, we studied highly ordered Co3O4(111) model catalysts for IPA oxidation in the as-prepared state and enhanced with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. Catalysts were prepared by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and further investigated by means of Low Energy Electron Diffrac- tion (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD). The nucleation process of Pt on the as-prepared Co3O4(111) surface was studied by depositing low amounts 0.04 and 0.13 monolayer (ML) of Pt, that create clusters as small as 2 or 3 atoms with no need for a special nucleation site. We have identified the formation of Pt-induced defects in the atomically flat cobalt oxide...
Study of CO oxidation on platinum by UHV-SEM
Jaroš, Antonín ; Kolíbal, Miroslav (referee) ; Bábor, Petr (advisor)
This bachelor’s thesis is focused on the study of heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of CO on the surface of platinum, but also in the confined space between platinum and graphene. The thesis is separated into two parts – theoretical and experimental. In the theoretical part, there is a general explanation of important principles regarding this thesis, such as the stucture of scanning electron microscope, growth of graphene, evolution of the catalytic oxidation of CO and oscillatory mode of this reaction, and lastly evolution of the same reaction under the graphene. The experimental part is chronologically concerned about individual tasks of bachelor’s thesis.
Low Platinum Content Thin Film Catalysts for Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Václavů, Michal ; Matolín, Vladimír (advisor)
Novel type of catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells anode is demonstrated. It is based on magnetron sputtered Pt-CeO2 a Pt-Sn-CeO2 mixed oxides. It is shown, that these materials allow to significantly decrease amount of platinum in the anode catalyst. The preparation method yields high amount of platinum in ionized form, especially Pt2+ , which is related to the high activity. Stability of these catalytic layers were investigated under conditions similar to fuel cell anode (humidified hydrogen at elevated temperature). Also interaction of hydrogen a water under UHV conditions were studied, demonstrating high stability of the Pt2+ species. In the last part of the work sputtered Pt-Co mixed catalyst were investigated to be used in the PEMFC cathode. It is demonstrated that at right conditions, the sputtered alloy catalyst improves mass activity on cathode by factor more than two.
Model catalysts based on cerium oxide
Aulická, Marie ; Veltruská, Kateřina (advisor)
This work deals with the preparation of thin cerium oxide films on the Cu(110) single crystal. Physico-chemical properties of this system were studied by surface science techniques (XPS, UPS, ARUPS, LEED, LEEM and STM). The first part of the work concerns interaction of Cu(110) single crystal with oxygen. Condi- tions for formation of O(2x1) and Oc(6x2) oxygen reconstructions were found. Various methods of preparation of CeOx films were discussed. A novel method for continuous control of ceria stoichiometry from CeO2 to Ce2O3 through variation of oxygen vacancy concentration has been developed. Ceria facilitated oxygen spill-over was observed on copper substrate. It was found that a restructuring of copper substrate occurs at the copper-ceria interface with subsequent formation of Cu(13 13 1) facets, which support a Carpet-like ceria overlayer. Interaction of this system with platinum was studied. Finally, high temperature growth of CeOx films was studied and creation of ceria islands exposing the (110) plane was observed. 1
The ifluence of inorganic nanoparticles on environmental compartments
Šram, Matěj ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
Nanoparticles are one of the newer risks for the environment. Their consumption is constantly rising and thus their entry into the environment is inevitably increasing. At the same time, nanopollutants are formed as by-products of anthropogenic activity. The theoretical part of the bachelor thesis describes the characteristics of nanoparticles and points out the possible risks in relation to the environment. In the experimental part, this work deals with the effect of platinum nanoparticles on dissolved organic matter. Platinum metals in the form of nanoparticles are significant anthropogenic pollutants, because they are released from automotive catalysts and are therefore the subject of this study.
Highly ordered cobalt oxide thin films for model catalysis
Ronovský, Michal ; Mysliveček, Josef (advisor) ; Švec, Martin (referee)
Hydrogen processing is becoming increasingly important not only in the production of electricity but also during its accumulation. One of the energy storage options are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC). The main drawback of LOHC is the need for a large amount of thermal energy to release molecular hydrogen. We can bypass this issue using heterogeneous catalysis by transferring hydrogen from LOHC to acetone and using the produced 2-propanol (IPA) in the fuel cell. This innovative strategy of getting electri- cal energy from LOHC can be potentially energetically neutral. In this work, we studied highly ordered Co3O4(111) model catalysts for IPA oxidation in the as-prepared state and enhanced with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. Catalysts were prepared by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and further investigated by means of Low Energy Electron Diffrac- tion (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD). The nucleation process of Pt on the as-prepared Co3O4(111) surface was studied by depositing low amounts 0.04 and 0.13 monolayer (ML) of Pt, that create clusters as small as 2 or 3 atoms with no need for a special nucleation site. We have identified the formation of Pt-induced defects in the atomically flat cobalt oxide...
The study of behavior of platinum nanoparticles in environmental compartments
Berka, Michal ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
Platinum nanoparticles pose a risk to environmental compartments. The aim of this diploma thesis is to conduct research on the influence of platinum nanoparticles in a wide range of concentrations on soil properties at different humidities. Specifically, it is about influencing the stability of water molecular bridges, the content of aliphatic crystallites, the retention capacity of water in the soil and the strength of water binding. Furthermore, the amount of nanoparticles sorbed on the soil was also measured. These indicators give us more information about the influence of platinum nanoparticles on evapotranspiration and soil deterioration. Methods of thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry) and optical methods (atomic absorption spectrometry) were used for these researches. The theoretical part of the work is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to platinum and its nanoparticles, as well as aqueous molecular bridges. It has been found that 200 nm platinum nanoparticles affect the strength of aqueous molecular bridges, have no effect on aliphatic crystallite content, have minimal effect on soil water retention, and that the water bond strength decreases due to platinum nanoparticles at high relative humidity. With 200 nm platinum nanoparticles, complete adsorption to soil occurs over the entire concentration range. With 3 nm nanoparticles, the soil is supersaturated at higher concentrations and larger amounts are not adsorbed. The results show that the larger the size of the platinum nanoparticles, the lower the negative effect on evapotranspiration and soil function itself.
Electrochemical Detection of p53 Protein Interactions with Plasmid DNAs Modified with Cisplatin Using Immunoprecipitation at Magnetic Microbeads
Pivoňková, Hana ; Tichý, Vlastimil ; Orság, Petr ; Šebest, Peter ; Fojta, Miroslav
Antineoplastic drug [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] (cisplatin) forms covalent adducts with DNA. Cisplatin-modified DNA can be determined sensitively using square-wave voltammetry at mercury electrodes. Tumor suppressor protein p53 binds to DNA in different modes, including sequence-and structure-specific ones and these interactions are influenced by modification of the DNA with cisplatin. In this contribution we present a simple immunoprecipitation technique with magnetic beads, followed by voltammetric determination of recovered cisplatinated DNA, for the evaluation of p53 protein binding to DNAs containing various target sites differing in their proneness to being internally modified with the platinum complex.
Study of contamination of river sediments with platinum metals
Novotný, Matěj ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This work deals with the characteristics of platinum metals and problems related to their toxicity and mobility in the environment, especially in the aquatic environment. These metals are released into the environment due to the use of automotive catalysts. Their function is based on the catalytic properties of platinum metals. Because of the high temperatures, these metals can be oxidized in the catalyst and subsequently emitted together with the combustion products into the surrounding atmosphere. The aim of the thesis is to measure real samples of river sediments of the river Svratka on the territory of the city of Brno and to find the possibility of contamination of the aquatic environment with these metals.
Study of 3-phase catalytic layers for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and electrolysers
Fuka, Šimon ; Matolínová, Iva (advisor) ; Khalakhan, Ivan (referee)
Title: Study of 3-phase catalytic layers for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and electrolysers Author: Šimon Fuka Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. Mgr. Iva Matolínová, Dr., Department of Surface and Plasma Science Abstract: The diploma thesis focuses on the study of catalytic layers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) or electrolyzers based on the mixture of platinum and cerium oxide. These layers are prepared by using magnetron sputtering, their properties are studied depending on the deposition parameters or the choice of the substrate by using SEM, AFM, XPS and then tested as an anode in the fuel cell. In addition to the morphology of the catalytic layers, it has been shown that the dispersion of very small nanoparticles of the catalyst with a size of 1-2 nm has a great effect on PEMFC performance. Most of the prepared samples gave maximal and maximal specific performance much higher than the state of art values published for Pt-CeOx system. By studying properties of the layers used as the anode catalysts, this work contributes to the understanding of PEMFC fuel cell behavior and, consequently, to its potential commercialization. Keywords: Fuel cell, cerium oxide, platinum, catalyst, magnetron sputtering

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