National Repository of Grey Literature 461 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Impact of soil samples treatment and used measurement methods on heavy metals concentrations.
Kejík, Marek ; Marko, Michal (referee) ; Hajzler, Jan (advisor)
This bachelor thesis aims to explore the possibilities of treatment of soil samples and compare the suitability of selected analytical methods of analysis for determining the concentration of heavy metals. 7 reference certified materials of various soil types and one soil sample from the recreational area located in Brno were selected. Each soil sample was subjected to three different treatments. It is a method of melting into a solution, decomposition in aqua regia and aqueous extract. All thus treated samples were subsequently subjected to analytical methods for determining the concentration, specifically the ICP-OES and GF-AAS methods were used. To assess the suitability of selected methods of treatment of soil samples and analytical methods of determination, the 4 most risky elements were selected, namely arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead. The measured concentrations were compared with reference values of soil samples. Finally, the suitability of combinations of different sample preparation procedures and selected methods of analytical determination of the content of determined elements from soil samples was assessed.
Study and characterization of organic substances in a biochar sample
Vojáčková, Beáta ; Kalina, Michal (referee) ; Enev, Vojtěch (advisor)
This bachelor thesis characterizes biochar from a physico-chemical point of view. The theoretical part deals with biochar as a soil conditioner, its properties, use, production, and last but not least, effect of its sorroundings. For better characterization of organic and inorganic matter a phosphate buffer was used. This buffer ensures their specific extraction due to a neutral pH. The second path is to use rainwater, which simulates the condition of the soil environment. In the experimental part are discussed both; purified buffer-extracted samples and rainwater samples, which were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis (EA) and by infrared spectroscopy with Fouier transform (FTIR-ATR). Conductivity and pH were also measured. Moisture and ash content, which represent the inorganic non-combustible fraction, were determined using thermogravimetry. The extraction yields were converted to ashless wt. % based on these values. Results of EA provided us with information on the content of biogenic elements and basic physico-chemical characteristics of biochar. In contrast, the FTIR method defined the presence of individual functional groups and specific constitutive units, which are present in the extracts. This information allows us to better understand the environmental impact of biochar on the soil ecosystem.
The influence of biochar on physico-chemical properties of soil
Polášková, Nikola ; Sedláček, Petr (referee) ; Smilek, Jiří (advisor)
This thesis is focused on assessment of the influence of biochar on the soil physico-chemical properties (particle density, dry density, porosity, water retention capacity and maximum water holding capacity, oxidizable carbon content, total nitrogen content, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium content). The selected and examined soil types were: cambisol, fluvisol, chernozem and regosol. There were two types of biochar used for analysis – NovoTerra and Sonnenerde. Soil samples were dried to constant weight and adjusted to grain-size fraction under 2 mm, respectively 0,25 mm. The oxidizable carbon content was measured by oxidation using a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid (Walkley-Black method), the total nitrogen content was measured by kjeldahlization and P, K and Mg content was measured using Mehlich 3 extraction and ICP-OES spectrometer. The results show that biochar has a significant influence on soil characteristics depending on the type of biochar and soil we use for biochar application. This thesis can be used to clarify the complex issues in terms of soil in Czech Republic or it can be used by farmers considering using biochar as a soil additive with the intention to increase productivity and fertility of soil.
Biochar Effect on the Microbial Processes in Soil
Losová, Anežka ; Sovová, Šárka (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is focused on the investigation of the biochar effect on the microbial processes in soil. The theoretical part describes the properties of the soil, the characteristics of biochar, the definition of the methods of its production and the influence of biochar on microbial activity in soil. The experimental part was focused on optimization of the conditions for assessing of the effect of biochar on the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter through monitoring of the release of carbon dioxide from soil without biochar and from the biochar-amended soil with NPK fertilizer. Carbon dioxide was sorbed into sodium hydroxide during the incubation and the released amount was determined by titration. In the following part of the thesis, the experiments were focused on assessing the effect of increased soil temperature and humidity on the amount of CO2 released by soil respiration. Experimental data showed that biochar promoted the microbial activity and this effect was even enhanced by addition of NPK fertilizer to a defined amount of biochar. The increased temperature negatively influenced the microbial processes in soil, as the rate of soil respiration of carbon dioxide decreased. Excessive moisture had also a negative effect on microbial activity, resulted in the slowed rate of the soil respiration. In summary, biochar has a positive effect on microbial activity and the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter in a defined amount under the appropriate conditions and it can be used as a suitable soil conditioner in agriculture.
Optimization of the Methodology for Assessment of Biochar Effect on the Growth of Model Plants
Štorková, Natálie ; Enev, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is studying the effect of biochar on the growth of model plant and deals with the optimalization of the methods for assessing its impact. Theoretical part describes the properties and utilization of soil conditioners, special attention is focused on biochar. According to the literature research, maize (Zea mays) was chosen as a model plant for cultivation experiment and subsequently the application doses of biochar were also defined. The cultivation experiment took place in growing box under controlled illumination and irrigation. Plant dry weight weighing after cultivation, continuous measurement of plant height during the cultivation and also image analysis of the root system were used for evaluating the influence of biochar on quantitative and qualitative properties of model plants. From obtained data it can be summarized that the growth differences were influenced by the application dose, the type of biochar and also by type of soil, which was used for the cultivation experiment.
The Life in the Soil: Practical Exercise for Elementary School
Müllerová, Romana ; Říhová, Dagmar (advisor) ; Škodová, Jana (referee)
My thesis's topic is life in the soil. This thesis discusses soil itself and organisms that live in it. At the same time it describes an implementation of the topic Soil in schooling into an educational program in a specific primary school. The theoretical part contains eight basic areas - soil formation, its characteristics, soil types, functions, soil degradation and protection, soil nutrients, methods of studying soil fauna and, last but not least, topic of soil in general education schedule for primary schooling and school edaucation schedule of a specific primary school. Empirical part of the work contains an analysis of the natural history textbooks on the topic of soil and a description of teaching material which was used during lessons at the Primary School Bystřice. The aim of the work was to verify the functionality of the resulting teaching materials which were evaluated in post and pre-tests. Both tests were first evaluated separately and then compared together. The resulsts were very similar. In th both of class was the same number of students were get better or get worse. The class 9.B had better point evaluation. KEYWORDS soil, soil fauna, soil practicals, analysis of textbooks, teaching materials
Application of superabsorbents in soil and its influence on plant growth
Závodská, Petra ; Kalina, Michal (referee) ; Klučáková, Martina (advisor)
This thesis is focused on description of superabsorbents with controlled released of nutrients, specifically macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and kalium. Superabsorbents are polymers, mostly acrylic acid polymers, that can absorb huge amount of water without dissolving in it. In its structure they can hold water and thanks to this they are very perspective materials for agricultural usage. Experimental part was focused on growing corn with use of superabsorbents and control samples without use of superabsorbents. Plants were growth for 3 time periods, specifically 46, 60 and 74 days. During the experiments, plats were growth without water stress and in controlled conditions in growing box under UV lamp that simulated day and night by turning on and off after 12 hours. At the end, an image analysis was performed in HARFA program, from which we got information about branching of the roots. Results were supplemented by soil and plants analysis.
Transformation of trace element speciation in disturbed soil profile
Kochergina, Yulia
Distributions of toxic trace elements were studied in soils before and after disturbation of their profiles.Two areas with different vegetation cover were selected: beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forests at the Načetín site in the Ore Mts. In the past, this area belonged to places with extreme levels of acidic atmospheric deposition. The studied areas are not placed too far from each other and have thus approximately the same climatic conditions, geological background and pollution input. On the other hand, physicochemical properties of soils (pH, CEC, BS, Ctot, Stot) and concentrations of major and trace elements are different. At selected sites in spruce and beech stand, two soil probes to a depth of 40-50 cm were dug in 2010 and samples of individual soil horizont were collected for chemical analyses (approximately 0.5 kg). Four samples from L, H, A and B horizons were taken in the spruce forest area and five samples from L, H, A, B and C horizons were taken in the beech forest. In 2011, the sites were re-sampled and samples were taken from horizons that were disturbed in 2010, paralleled by samples of undisturbed soil horizons from the same probe sites. Trace element concentrations were determined by ICP-MS, the speciation of individual elements in the soils was determined by...
Disposition of land in Czech law and the law of Israel
Falteisková, Sabina ; Franková, Martina (referee)
Disposition of land in Czech law and the law of Israel Abstract The main goal of the thesis is to analyse and compare the legal regulation of disposition of land and its protection in the Czech Republic and the State of Israel and answer the question whether the Czech legislation and the State of Israel can benefit from such regulations. Protection of land from degradation is absolutely crucial task that in the light of climate change, accompanied by extreme drought along with social and economic development becomes very actual. The thesis deals with the land and its peculiarities in the legal sense, which together with other factors significantly affect the relationship to land. The introduction to the issue is given by a part of the work devoted to the history and geography of both countries, focusing on the current state and major environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the legal development over the last hundred years in relation to land-legal relations. Furthermore, the thesis focuses on defining current ownership relations and on the context of land disposition in both countries. Both the private-law structure and the public-law organization of these relations, which are significantly different in both countries, are described in detail. In this respect, much of the attention is focused on the...
Legal instruments for protection of soils
Bakule, Jan ; Franková, Martina (advisor) ; Fabšíková, Tereza (referee)
1 Legal instruments for protection of soils Abstract Diploma thesis analyses the topic of legal instruments for soil protection. Significance of soil, as one of the components of environment, lies especially in securing livelihood for the inhabitants of our planet, water circulation and retention, and in the fact that soil provides living space for a substantial portion of living organisms. In this context the legal instruments represent means by which we can successfully protect soil from its degradation. Considering that soil degradation is rapidly increasing in the last couple of decades, the topic of this diploma thesis becomes more and more pressing, though sometimes overlooked by general public. Thesis primarily analyses legal instruments which exist in the Czech legislation and are most significant for the state of soil in the Czech Republic. The objective of this thesis is particularly to analyse individual legal instruments, to critically evaluate them and suggest possible improvements to the current state of soil protection in the Czech Republic. The first chapter highlights the enviromental importance of soil and characterizes its specificities as one of the components of environment. Subsequently current soil degradation processes are presented. In the end of the chapter the thesis summarizes...

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