National Repository of Grey Literature 57 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Maternal effect in selected rodent species: positive and negative effect on offspring fitness
Malá, Jana ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Stopková, Romana (referee)
This work describes the most studied mechanisms which could be classified as maternal effects. Here I focus on the effects of body weight, health status, intestinal microflora and age of the mother in model rodent organisms. I also present factors such as the position of the young in the uterus, population density, stress and especially maternal care, which accompanies this entire work. Each of these mechanisms can positively or negatively influence offspring fitness, depending on specific environmental conditions. Maternal behaviour is presented here in the form of research, which documents both epigenetic and genetic influences acting on its final form. Maternal care as an element of maternal behaviour shows a different measure between individuals, indicated by the frequency of licking and cleaning offsprings. By evaluation of maternal care, we can find in laboratory populations two stable phenotypes of individuals with different behavioural manifestations in terms of sexual behaviour, stress reaction, aggression or cognitive abilities. The discussion critically evaluates whether maternal care really affects reproductive success and whether it can therefore be considered an adaptive mechanism. According to the available information, low maternal care appears to be a more beneficial strategy in...
Graphical user interface for embedded applications
Bránecký, Peter ; Richter, Miloslav (referee) ; Petyovský, Petr (advisor)
The bachelor work deals with the design and implementation of a graphical user interface for the Raspberry Pi Pico Kit development board. This board is built around the Raspberry Pi Pico platform. Furthermore, the work deals with the processing of user input from keyboard and mouse via the USB interface, generation of image output for the VGA interface on the development board and usage of microSD card for loading and storing data.
In vitro 3D organization of the mammalian testes
Zahradníková, Hana ; Tlapáková, Tereza (advisor) ; Janečková, Lucie (referee)
A testicular organoid that would sufficiently recapitulate the architecture of the testicular tissue and at the same time be able to provide the complete process of spermatogenesis in vitro has not yet been created. Achieving this goal would mean the development of a 3D model of the testis, which would mimic the in vivo situation in terms of cell arrangement and could thus contribute to a deeper understanding of the physiological functioning of the testicular microenvironment. Among other things, such a model has a great potential for clarifying the causes of male infertility and finding treatment options. This thesis dealt with the generation of organoids from mouse or human testicular cell suspensions, which can also be used, for example, to study de novo organogenesis. A total of four 3D culture systems were tested, of which the soft agar culture system (SACS) achieved the best results. Furthermore, as part of this thesis, the procedure for preparing testicular organoids for light sheet microscopy was successfully introduced and optimized, enabling the evaluation of their internal structure. From the testicular cell suspension of a 5-day-old mouse, it was possible to prepare testicular organoids, the structure of which in some respects resembled the organization of the testis in vivo. The...
Laboratorní test disasortativního párování u hraboše polního - literární rešerše
BÍLKOVÁ, Pavlína
Petrásková P. (2019): Laboratorní test disasortativního párování u hraboše polního - literární rešerše [Laboratory test of disassortative pairing in the common vole - literature search. Bc. Thesis in Czech]-49 pp. , Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic. The aim of this work is to use the literature research to map current knowledge about the effect of odour preference on reproductive success in mammals focusing on voles. As assortative pairing is referred to each form of non-random pairing. Most of the time is meant a situation in which individuals who have similar phenotypes pair more often. The opposite is the situation where individuals with different phenotypes pair more often. This is sometimes referred to as negative assortative or disassortative pairing. In particular, this study deals with non-random pairing among to body odour . These are mainly linked to genes for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in animals, which play a key role in the immune system. MHC gene products found in various body secretions form the specific odour of each individual. In the research part were searched question for following questions: How is the breeding partner chosen? Is Assortative or Disassortative Pairing More Frequent? What information does body odour convey? What channels is the odour information transmitted and received? How is odour preference testing solved in laboratory conditions? In the practical part, a plan of the experiment is presented in which T-labyrinth will play the main role in determining the odour preference. Under laboratory conditions, voles will have plenty of time to complete the process
LINC complex: The link between chromatin integrity and sperm motility
Šanovec, Ondřej ; Komrsková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Lánská, Eva (referee)
The LINC complex (Linker of the Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) is a protein structure located in the nuclear membrane that connects the cytoskeleton with the nucleoskeleton. This complex can be found in every mammalian cell including the gametes. However, here the LINC complex is more diverse and less studied than in the somatic cells. In this thesis, the LINC complex and its role in spermiogenesis have been studied in wild-type and Protamine 2 knockout (Prm2-/- ) mice. Protamines are small proteins that replace histones during spermiogenesis. The mouse model generated by the group of prof. Hubert Schorle has a deletion in Prm2 in exon 1 and its sperm possess a surprising phenotype including complete loss of motility. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the LINC complex might be responsible for miscommunication between the sperm head and tail which leads to the loss of sperm motility. Results from this study suggest that the LINC complex is not influenced by Prm2 deletion, however, actin dynamics, cytoskeletal motor proteins and tubulin acetylase/ histone deacetylase activity might be impaired. Prm2-/- sperm have a significantly higher abundance of β-actin compared to the wild type. Next, Prm2-/- sperm also show a different pattern of acetylation of α-tubulin but no change in the abundance of...
Mapping of the cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog during the embryonic development of heart
Břežná, Veronika ; Hovořáková, Mária (advisor) ; Šaňková, Barbora (referee)
Sonic hedgehog is one of three members of the Hedgehog family, whose signaling pathway plays a crucial role in controlling the development of vertebrates. Sonic hedgehog has an important role in organizing the developmental processes of majority of organ systems. Interestingly, its direct expression or a contribution of cell lineages expressing this signaling molecule in the myocardium has never been described. The aim of this work was to try to detect the cells that expressed Sonic hedgehog directly in the heart tissue with a focus on the myocardium. We monitored these cells from embryonic day 10.5 to 16.5 and then postnatally. We also evaluated current Sonic hedgehog expression in cardiac tissue from embryonic day 12.5 to embryonic day 15.5. We used the CreLoxP system, X-gal staining, fluorescence and confocal microscopy to detect cell lines expressing Sonic hedgehog. We also assessed the presence of cells that expressed Sonic hedgehog in the developping heart in the past using immunohistochemistry. According to our results, the presence of a descendant cell lineage expressing Sonic hedgehog in the past was demonstrated prenatally and postnatally in the mouse myocardium. The performed analysis shows that these cells can be detected in cardiac tissue from embryonic day 10.5 till the postnatal...
Principles of ovarian stimulation and oocyte collection in mouse and human.
Klinovská, Karolína ; Hortová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Svoboda, Petr (referee)
This thesis deals with methods of controlled ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval on physiological basis. Mouse has been major model organism for wide range of key researches and being able to stimulate its ovarian functions correctly is necessary. That is why mouse stimulation is main topic of this thesis. It summarizes available data and stimulation protocols in relation to factors which can affect the result as a condition, strain, quality of hormones used in administration and others. Potential affections on oocyte and embryo quality are mention according to specific types of administration protocols. Human infertility is slowly becoming common and one of the techniques used to treat it in assisted reproduction is also ovarian stimulation. In the end of this thesis is a chapter dealing with this commonly used method. It is focused on stimulation for oocyte retrieval, as well as on stimulation of recipient mother in embryotransfer. Differences based on hormones, success in In vitro fertilization programme (IVF) and application frequency are mentioned.
Genetic interactions of the Prdm9 gene
Šebestová, Lenka ; Trachtulec, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Král, Jiří (referee)
The Prdm9 gene (PR domain containing 9, Meisetz, Hybrid sterility 1) encodes enzyme that trimethylates histone 3 on lysines 4 and 36. These methylation marks determine the positions of DNA double-strand breaks that are repaired by meiotic homologous recombination. In this study, we assayed genetic interactions of Prdm9 with two genes important for spermatogenesis - Mili (Piwil2) involved in piRNA biogenesis and Mybl1 encoding transcription factor that regulates many genes important for prophase I, including piRNA precursors. We crossed laboratory mice carrying mutation in Prdm9 with heterozygotes for mutation in Mybl1 or Mili, and created compound heterozygotes and, in case of Mybl1, also double homozygotes. We assessed body weight and male fertility parameters (weight of testes, sperm count, malformed sperm, percentage of tubules containing spermatocytes and of abnormal nuclei of pachytene spermatocytes) of these mice and compared them to controls. We also investigated the effect of Mybl1 and Mili mutations on fecundity of F1 intersubspecific hybrids. Our results revealed possible interactions of Prdm9 and Mybl1 in the laboratory mouse. Decreased gene dosage of Mybl1 reduced fertility of intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Interaction between Prdm9 and Mili in both laboratory mouse and F1 hybrids remain...
Regulation of development of mouse parthenogenetic embryos
Jettmarová, Dominika ; Fulka, Josef (advisor) ; Kaňka, Jiří (referee)
The development of mouse (Mus musculus) haploid parthenogenetic embryos does not reach the same level as normal embryos. The aim of this diploma thesis was to find out whether haploid parthenogenetic embryos of mice differ in the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The volume of the nucleus increases with ploidity. The nucleocytoplasmic ratios of haploid embryos do not significantly change between the two-cell and four-cell stage (p = 0.052), there is a significant difference (p < 0.001) for diploid and tetraploid embryos. Non-standard nucleocytoplasmic ratio could be related to the problematic development. Understanding the regulation of preimplantational development of parthenogenetic embryos will increase the efficiency of haploid embryonic stem cell derivation.
Morphological variability of the incisor in mutant mice
Lochovská, Kateřina ; Hovořáková, Mária (advisor) ; Churavá, Svatava (referee)
Myš je nejfrekventovaněji používaným experimentálním modelovým organismem pro studium vývoje zubů. Myší funkční dentice obsahuje jeden řezák oddělený od tří molárů dlouhou bezzubou diastemou v každém čelistním kvadrantu. Cílem této práce bylo shrnout poznatky o myší dentici a jejím vývoji se zaměřením na myší řezáky a jejich patologie. Myší řezák je díky svým vlastnostem jedinečným zubem. Charakteristickou vlastností hlodavců jsou právě kontinuálně rostoucí řezáky. Tyto řezáky jsou pokryté sklovinou pouze na labiální straně. Lingvální povrch je tvořen pouze dentinem. Toto je spojeno s asymetrickou abrazí. Nicméně je také častým cílem mutací, ať už v podobě delece nebo jiné modifikace genů. Tyto mutace dentálních signálních drah jsou studovány na mutantních myších jako jsou například Tabby myši, Sprouty nebo Small eye (Sey) mutantní myši a mnoho dalších. Některé mutace jsou homologní k lidským onemocněním. Například X-vázaný tabby (Ta) syndrom u myší je považován za homolog hypohidrotické ektodermální dysplásie (HED) u lidí. Tato mutace napadá velikost řezáku, jeho tvar a pozici stejně jako cytodiferenciaci. Dále se může objevit hypodoncie, anodoncie nebo nějaké morfologické změny napadající ostatní existující zuby. Abnormality v počtu, velikosti a tvaru zubu byly dobře zdokumentovány v lidské...

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