National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Protein composition of the cytoskeleton of protists
Švagr, Eva ; Hampl, Vladimír (advisor) ; Pánek, Tomáš (referee)
While we have a good understanding of the roles of actin and tubulin filaments in the cell cytoskeleton, intermediate filaments (IFs) are often overlooked. However, the importance of IFs becomes quite apparent, as proteins similar to IF proteins have been identified in many protist cells. This holds particularly for the cells of protists, where even the functions of some members of the of actin and tubulin superfamilies remain unclear. Intermediate filaments are still not well established as components of protist cytoskeletons, in contrast to their more thoroughly studied counterparts in Metazoa. Protist and metazoan IF proteins are dissimilar in their sequence; however, they share similarities in structure, and they assemble autonomously into analogous filaments. IF-like proteins have been localized to striated fibers or unique cytoskeletal components in several organisms, even though not much is known about the protein composition of these striated fibers to date. This suggests that IF-like proteins might be a universally present component of these striated fibers often seen in protist cells. Keywords: Protists, cytoskeleton, microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, fibrils, protein composition
Interakce viru klíšťové encefalitidy s cytoskeletem hostitelských buněk
This thesis is focused on the role of host cytoskeleton, primarily microtubules and microfilaments, during tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH and tick cell line IRE/CTVM19. The importance of cytoskeletal integrity and dynamics to the viral replication cycle were examined using specific chemical inhibitors showing the virus utilizes studied structures in both cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed structural changes in the actin cytoskeleton during late infection in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, differences in expression of cytoskeleton-associated genes in both cell lines were compared. Several genes with up-regulated expression in SK-N-SH cells were identified during late infection.
Endocytic transport in cytokinesis
Koudelová, Kristina ; Libusová, Lenka (advisor) ; Vosolsobě, Stanislav (referee)
Cytokinesis represents a very complex and highly orchestrated process. For many years, the mechanism of animal cell cytokinesis was described as a result of actomyosin ring constriction. By contrast, in plant cells the division was seen as an outcome of vesicle fusion at the cell plate region between two daughter cells. Recent studies, however, uncover the involvement of vesicular trafficking in animal cell cytokinesis. This thesis aims to highlight the importance of endocytic transport and the necessity of its proper regulation. At first, the origin of vesicles is debated. Afterwards, three main types of endocytic vesicles are examined - Rab11/FIP3 endosomes, Rab35-endosomes and PI(3)P-enriched endosomes, along with their function and interacting partners. Finally, the attention is given to the mechanism of abscission and midbody inheritance. Ongoing processes are accompanied by changes in membrane composition, cytoskeleton reorganization and targeted delivery of distinct cargo molecules. Failure in cytokinesis has been implicated in the etiology of many diseases, such as cancer. Therefore, better understanding of associated endocytic trafficking may provide us with new therapeutic strategies.
Role of formins in the organization and dynamics of intracellular structures in Arabidopsis thaliana
Rosero Alpala, Elvia Amparo ; Cvrčková, Fatima (advisor) ; Baluška, František (referee) ; Malcová, Ivana (referee)
On the basis of detailed phenotypic examination of fh1 and fh2 mutants we observed that the main housekeeping Arabidopsis thaliana formin AtFH1 (At3g25500) and its closest relative, AtFH2 (At2g43800) are involved in both actin filaments and microtubule dynamics. fh1 mutants showed increased sensitivity to the actin polymerization inhibitor Latrunculin B (LatB). Formin mutants had cotyledon pavement cells which exhibited more pronounced lobes compared to the wild type, and alterations in vascular tissue patterning were found. The double fh1 fh2 homozygote was not obtained, suggesting that at least one functional formin gene is required for proper gametophyte development. Methods used to observe and quantify both architecture and dynamics of the cortical cytoskeleton from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) were standarized and allowed to find that mutants exhibited more abundant but less dynamic F- actin bundles and more dynamic microtubules than wild type seedlings, fh1 mutant phenotype observed in roots was further aggravated by a (heterozygous) fh2 mutation. The formin inhibitor SMIFH2 mimicked the alterations observed in fh1 mutants in plants, it has been the first report of this inhibitor in plants. Defects in membrane trafficking were...

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