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PCR diagnostics Neoehrlichia mikurensis
ČÍŽKOVÁ, Pavlína
This bachelor thesis focuses on the development of a new diagnostic method for the detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks. The new method was developed based on the unavailability of a suitable diagnostic method of N. mikurensis as well as the lack of accurate data about infection frequency of ticks by the pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in the scientific literature. In the theoretical part, I deal with general information about ticks and their transmitted diseases, which can be bacterial, viral or protozoal. The diseases described in my bachelor thesis are borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, ehrlichiosis, bartonellosis, tularemia and babesiosis. Special attention is dedicated to newly detected causative agents of neoehrlichiosis. Various type of techniques have been used during the development of the new diagnostic method, such as polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR), cloning, sequencing and agarose gel electrophoresis (ELFO). These methods are complemented by a large number of different laboratory procedures, such as DNA isolation, minipreparation of plasmid DNA, gel purification of DNA, and bacterial stock solution preparation. Statistical evaluation was performed based on the analysis of mixed samples of 10 ticks, using the PCR method. A total of 1 390 ticks were tested during 2018.
Studium dráhy pro syntézu mastných kyselin u klíštěte \kur{Ixodes ricinus}
ZEMANOVÁ, Aneta
Aim of this work was to study fatty acid synthesis pathway in the tick Ixodes ricinus. I have characterized tissues and stage expression profiles of three genes; acc (acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase), fas (fatty acid synthetase) and fabp (fatty acid binding protein) by qRT-PCR. Then expression of these genes was silenced by RNA interference and phenotypes observed during and after feeding in nymphs and adults. The pathway seems to be crutial for the ticks.
Diferenciální exprese transkriptů slinných žláz klíštěte \kur{Ixodes ricinus}
KROPÁČKOVÁ, Sára
Ticks are using different mechanisms for host immune system suppression. In this thesis, I compared ten transcripts from ticks salivary glands, which are differentially expressed during feeding on live animal and artificial systems. Further, a tick protein anticomplement 1, AC1, was chosen and subjected to deeper investigation, because of the significant difference in expression during feeding. Serum with specific antibodies was made and AC1 expression levels were examined in nymphs and adults, during feeding on different hosts. Moreover, any potential interacting partners from host serum through covalent binding were tested. This study contributes to the understanding of regulation of expression and funtional characterisation of tick salivary proteins.
Tick-borne encephalitis in Liberec Region during 2001-2016.
CHMELAŘOVÁ, Šárka
The presented thesis is focused on a comprehensive evaluation of situation related to the Tick-borne encephalitis on the territory of the Liberec Region in years 2001 2016. One of the main aims was to process the results of a demographic analysis of the Tick-borne encephalitis cases. These cases have been reported for 16 years within the so-called Tick-borne encephalitis surveillance to the system called EPIDAT by the Regional public health authority of the Liberec Region. Thank these analyzed data it was possible to create maps which illustrate particular focuses of the Tick-borne encephalitis in the Liberec Region and which graphically draw attention to locations threatened with infection. The KAP questionnaire study was held in a chosen Tick-borne encephalitis focus in order to improve a prevention of the Tick-borne encephalitis in the Region. This study was focused on knowledge, attitudes, opinions and practice of locals related to an occurrence of ticks and also of the Tick-borne encephalitis transmitted by them. Together with data gathering was held the distribution of the informative leaflets and also edification in this issue by a discussion about respondent´s questions. The collected data were processed by a descriptive method and also were detailed to a statistics testing. Due to an amount of analyzed information, this testing did not bring any statistic important results in most of the questions. The contribution of this thesis is especially the processed data of the Tick-borne encephalitis for those mentioned 16 years. These data could be useful for example for arguments of the public health authorities in case of discussion related to the Tick-borne encephalitis issue. The questionnaire study pointed out a problem which could cause a failure of people prevention. This problem means less of interest in health issues from their side. The question is how to learn population to perceive the risk of this disease when the half of the respondents do not feel threatened by the Tick-borne encephalitis? This fact is not certainly a problem only in the prevention of infectious diseases.
Detekce a kvantifikace inhibitorů proteáz v klíštěti \kur{Ixodes ricinus} pomocí monoklonálních protilátek
VANÍČKOVÁ, Martina
Inhibitors of proteases in tick saliva play an important role during tick feeding. Tick saliva contains a wide range of bioactive components which are able to modulate host imunity. Therefore, ticks are able to feed for a long time and transfer tick-borne diseases pathogens. The risk of transfer can be significantly reduced by deactivation of theese protease inhibitors. In this study I made monoclonal antibodies for detection and quantification of two serine protease inhibitors in tick saliva and other tick-body parts.
Analýza exprese tyrosinové aminotransferázy a 4-hydroxyfenylpyruvát dioxygenázy v klíštěcích tkáních a vývojových stádiích pomocí RT-qPCR
PLAČKOVÁ, Barbora
Blood-feeding arthropods acquire and digest vast amounts of host blood meal, which often exceeds their body volume up to 100 times. Blood protein hydrolysis liberates amino acids which are recycled for de novo protein synthesis or are further catabolised. Transcripts encoding enzymes of tyrosine catabolism were found to be substantially enriched in digestive tract of blood-feeding hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus. This catabolic pathway was validated as a drug target by RNAi and viability assay with available inhibitors. In this bachelor thesis, I identified homologues of two genes encoding the first two enzymes of tyrosine catabolism, tyrosine aminotransferase and hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, in the Ixodes ricinus tick and characterised their tissue expression patterns. Using RNAi, it was confirmed that HPPD is essential for tick survival after detachment of the host.
The role of dietary haemoglobin in physiology and development of \kur{Ixodes ricinus} nymphal stage
HATALOVÁ, Tereza
Obligatory blood feeding ensures consistent composition (both molecular and cellular) and provides a comprehensive source of nutrients. Ticks imbibe host blood meal in their all active stages. For that reason, they were hypothesised to loose some biosynthetic pathways at the expense of developing acquisition and transporting networks. Availability of genomic and transcriptomic data of Ixodes spp. ticks revealed that they have lost genes encoding enzymes, participant in haem biosynthesis. Using an artificial membrane feeding system of hard ticks, it was demonstrated that adult I. ricinus females acquire haem from a host haemoglobin and transport extracted haem into ovaries. Ovaries devoid of host haem deposits failed to undergo embryogenesis and halted tick reproduction. Questions how juvenile stages of ticks require haem and for what purposes is a focus of this bachelor thesis.
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccination and awareness of the disease risk factors in selected age group in South Bohemian Region
RŮŽIČKOVÁ, Veronika
The thesis is devoted to the issue of vaccination problematics and awareness of tick-borne encephalitis in a selected population group in South Bohemia. For the needs of research, the selected group was composed of students of secondary schools and grammar schools in the South Bohemian Region in the age group from 13 to 19 years old. The objectives of this work was to analyze the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic and the South Bohemian Region between 2000 and 2015, to compare the vaccination in the Czech Republic with the other European countries, to find the vaccination of a selected age group in the South Bohemian Region and to analyze the level of awareness of the risks of tick-borne encephalitis by the polling method and the attitude of the age group to vaccination against this disease. To achieve the objectives was used a secondary analysis of the data from the EpiDat system, where the incidence of the disease was detected in the period in the South Bohemian Region and the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey was used to obtain awareness on observed disease and attitude of the study group towards vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. The conclusions of the questionnaire survey were obtained on the basis of statistical processing in the MS Excel spreadsheet. For my significant findings from my research, I consider 80% of the vaccination in the monitored group. Information on tick-borne encephalitis in most cases did not get the respondents from a doctor, but from family members, from the internet or from television. However, information on vaccination is given to respondents to a greater extent. Contributions by insurance companies do not motivate more than half of respondents to inoculation. Research has also shown, that respondents have insufficient information about the amount of the contribution and whether their insurance company provide the contribution at all. In view of these circumstances, I consider the increased promotion of this vaccination by insurance companies to be very desirable.
Students' knowledge of upper primary school about diseases transmitted by ticks
Michálková, Pavla ; Hanušová, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Thorovská, Alena (referee)
The main research problem concerns the characteristics of tick-borne disease and determine the quantity and quality of information that students get in health education and biology of these diseases. The theoretical part deals with the history, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease. It also discusses the general problems of tick and other diseases that ticks carry and cause. Also is mentioned the inclusion of tick-borne diseases in the educational program. The practical part is devoted to the awareness of upper primary school students and changes in their knowledge about the issue during their elementary education. The aim of this thesis is to determine how the students are informed about diseases transmitted by ticks, especially about Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. This method is used questionnaire, which includes questions regarding this issue. Although the results of the research show a certain degree of knowledge of students at upper primary school, especially in some classes is unsatisfactory. Based on research, there is provided a recommendation for pedagogical practices. KEYWORDS: tick, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, knowledge, disease, upper primary school
Tick-Borne Diseases - Knowledge of High School Students
Vlček, Karel ; Pavlasová, Lenka (advisor) ; Ehler, Edvard (referee)
Tick-borne diseases are caused by a group of pathogenic microorganisms which are transmitted between animal and human population by vector which is most frequently tick. Evaluation of danger and perils of these diseases is important due to prevention and monitoring of current situation development. The most common tick-borne diseases in the Czech Republic are borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis and ehrlichiosis. Rarely can we encounter bartonellosis, babesiosis, rickettsiosis and tularemia. All these diseases can have serious consequences and in critical cases they can result in death of the infected person. One of the basic and the most important of preventive measures which lower the risk of the infection by any tick-borne disease is prevention of tick encounter and eventually vaccination. Due to continual global warming we can expect that in near future ticks will spread even to locations which have been so far not suitable for their development. We can expect that we will even more frequently encounter tick-borne diseases - including diseases which were formerly not found in our territory or were very rare. As a part of health education it will be needed more to get known basic information of tick-borne diseases and their prevention. Different educational centres are an ideal place for...

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