National Repository of Grey Literature 169 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The enzymes of catecholamine metabolism in experimental hypertension.
Loučková, Anna ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Klevstigová, Martina (referee)
Catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine are significantly involved in regulation of blood pressure. The most important enzymes participating in their metabolism are tyrosin hydroxylase, DOPA dekarboxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. This thesis summarizes current knowledge about these enzymes, focusing on their role in the development of essential hypertension. Experimental models are often used in the study of hypertension because of their practical and ethic reasons. Most findings were obtained in spontaneously hypertensive rats, due to their similarity to human essential hypertension. Metabolism of catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive rat differs in many aspects from that of normotensive controls. The primary cause of this type of hypertension has not yet been distinguished from compensatory responses. However, prevention or slow-down the disease-development process can be achieved by various interventions. This information may help to identify new treatments for human hypertension.
Systemic arterial hypertension and strain
Sakaláš, Radovan ; Radvanský, Jiří (advisor) ; Procházka, Miroslav (referee)
Bachelor thesis "Systemic arterial hypertension and exercise" deals with hypertension and exercise. Physiology of the circulatory system, as well as blood pressure regulation and measurement is covered in the first section. The next section discusses definition, classification, and subtype classification. Furthermore, the thesis discusses pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension. The main part of the thesis covers exercise blood pressure reaction as a diagnostic tool for determining risk for future hypertension. Moreover, exercise and physical activity is described as a therapeutic tool in blood pressure reduction. This section compares and determines the intensity, frequency, and period of endurance and resistance training needed for an optimal blood pressure reduction. The final section is dedicated to the mechanisms of exercise effect on blood pressure. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Excitation-Contraction and Excitation-Transcription Coupling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Alterations in Experimental Hypertension and Vascular Remodeling
Misárková, Eliška ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express considerable phenotype plasticity. They are able to change their phenotype in vivo if necessary. It is important to know that during this phenotype switch the expression of transport proteins and channels is modified, which results in significant alteration of Ca2+ signaling in smooth muscle cells. In differentiated cells, which represent contractile phenotype, there are dominant rapid, transient events in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ i), while the resting cytosolic Ca2+ i concentration is low. In differentiated cells these Ca2+ i events are mainly caused by two components of the Ca2+ signalling pathways: 1) extracellular Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-type VGCC) in plasma membrane, and 2) depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores via ryanodin receptors located on sarcoplasmic reticulum. Rapid Ca2+ i oscillations are quickly reduced by numerous Ca2+ ATPases of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. Proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells are characterized by a long-lasting Ca2+ i oscillations accompanied by sustained elevation of basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration. During phenotype switch from contractile phenotype to proliferative phenotype there is decreased Ca2+ ATPase activity, and store-operated Ca2+...
The role of RhoA/Rho kinase signalling pathway in the regulation of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats
Brunová, Aneta ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Wasková, Petra (referee)
Evidence is accumulating that point to a major role of Rho kinase in arterial pathophysiology. Rho kinase is a key enzyme in calcium sensitization in vascular smooth muscle cells. Calcium sensitization is characterized as an increase in vascular contractility in the conditions of constant cytosolic calcium level. Inhibitors of Rho-kinase exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, mainly by lowering vascular contractility. This thesis summarizes the current progress in understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the control of peripheral resistance of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It is evident that enhanced sympathetic activity and abnormal regulation of ion channel activity collectively contribute to high blood pressure maintenance in SHR.
Neural mechanisms in the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension in the rat
Vavřínová, Anna ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Neckář, Jan (referee)
Both sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems are involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the mostly used animal model of genetic hypertension, is characterized by multiple molecular, morphological and functional alterations at different levels of sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems. The study of young prehypertensive SHR allows to reveal the abnormalities preceding hypertension development, whereas adult SHR with established hypertension offers a better model for the treatment of human essential hypertension. The aim of my PhD Thesis was to describe abnormalities in sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems in SHR under different conditions. Firstly, ontogenetic differences which might contribute to hypertension development were determined. Secondly, the effect of chemical sympathectomy induced by guanethidine in adulthood on cardiovascular parameters and on the compensatory mechanisms counteracting the reduction of blood pressure were studied. Thirdly, stress-induced cardiovascular response and stress-induced changes of sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems were described in adult SHR. My Thesis brought several important results. The increased adrenal catecholamine content and the...
Cardiac ischemic tolerance of hypertensive rats
Jelínek, Jan ; Neckář, Jan (advisor) ; Sotáková, Dita (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to summarize current knowledge about the influence of the ischemic- reperfusion injury at the myocard of hypertensive subjects. First part of this thesis is focused on the description of ischemia, reperfusion and changes in the myocardial metabolism during these processes. These changes in the myocardial metabolism are for example necrosis or apoptosis of the myocardial cells. The second part describes the currently known cardioprotective phenomena. This part also compares their effects. The signalization of preconditioning, the second window of preconditioning and the postconditioning are described here in more details. Third part is focused on the description of the risk factors connected to the ICHS and hypertension. It describes also classes of hypertension, clinical and experimental methods of hypertension treatment, description of the laboratory breeds of hypertensive rats. In the last part of this thesis I describe the influence of hypertension on the I-R injury in current laboratory studies. In the most studies spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used. As a normotensive controls Wistar-Kyoto rats were mostly used. For some other experiments transgenic genetic rats (TGR) were used. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Evaluation of results using different methods of experimental measuring of blood pressure amongst students of the First Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University
Sova, Jan ; Kymplová, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Jirsa, Jan (referee)
During the projects from biophysics of freshman students of the Faculty of Medicine the pressure measurement is run by several different methods; palpation, auscultatory and digital method. Students are learning to record the measurement in a systematic way, and they are learning to compare the results of every method to each other. The measurement of systolic and diastolic pressure are dependent on each other of course, as well they are dependent on the set of biometric and other information that is well available in healthy students (sex, height, weight, physical strain etc.). The aim of the thesis is to compare the results acquired by the methods of measurement mentioned above, related to the accuracy of the scattering of the measurement and related to the anticipated standard values of healthy individuals. The basis of the thesis is going to be project and creation of the regression model for the levels of systolic/diastolic pressure measured out that is dependent on biometric data along with the testing of statistical importance of parametres through the procedure of multifactorial ANOVA for the repeated measurement. The result will aim to show both advantages and disadvantages of different methods of the pressure measurement during accordingly varying conditions of experiments. The thesis...
Endothelin system and the role of salt in hypertension
Čejková, Soňa ; Vaněčková, Ivana (advisor) ; Soták, Matúš (referee)
Although hypertension is studied for several decades, this problem is still not solved. Moreover, its incidence increases. Most cases of secondary hypertension is associated with the kidneys, the most important organ regulating the volume and ionic composition of body fluids. If the kidneys are damaged, or intake of salt is excessive, they are unable to fulfill their role and blood pressure (BP) increases. Especially salt contributes to secondary hypertension. Excessive salt intake increases the volume of body fluids and subsequently increases BP, and secondary act on the mechanisms regulating BP, mainly the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endotelin (ET) system. Endothelin-1 (ET 1) is the main active peptide of the ET system. ET-1 is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors. It acts through ET receptors type A and B (ETA and ETB receptors), which belong to the family of receptors coupled with G-proteins. The effects of ETA and ETB receptors differ depending on the type of cells where they are located. For example, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle contribute to vasoconstriction, whereas the same receptors on endothelial cells of blood vessels mediate vasodilation (stimulating the production of NO). In the kidney, ET system affects excretion of Na+and water and contribute to the regulation...
Metabolically syndrome - threat of civilisation diseases
Březinová, Marie ; Kulhavá, Miluše (advisor) ; Podaná, Jana (referee)
The aim of the bachelor's thesis is the metabolic syndrome as a threat of civilization diseases. The thesis is divided into a theoretical and an empirical part. The theoretical part is divided into two chapters . The first chapter deals with very general civilization diseases, the causes, and the prevention of various diseases. The second chapter is devoted to comprehensive metabolic syndrome, its characteristics, etiology, occurrence, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The empirical part, implemented quantitative research, based on a questionnaire survey of 102 randomly selected respondents, patients of internal departments and private ambulance Hospital Brandys nad Labem with the objectives to determine how patients are informed about MS who provided them the information and whether they are interested in a greater awareness of the issues. It also determines whether observance of the regime measures for the prevention of MS. The survey shows that respondents are informed about MS the most from the medical staff and the media. There was less than half of them who expressed interest in additional information about MS. From the results it is also clear that respondents fully respected preventive measures regime. For a better awareness of MS I suggest in patient care, regular group meetings of...

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