
Extreme Value Theory in Operational Risk Management
Vojtěch, Jan ; Kahounová, Jana (advisor) ; Řezanková, Hana (referee) ; Orsáková, Martina (referee)
Currently, financial institutions are supposed to analyze and quantify a new type of banking risk, known as operational risk. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk in their everyday activities. The main objective of this work is to construct an acceptable statistical model of capital requirement computation. Such a model must respect specificity of losses arising from operational risk events. The fundamental task is represented by searching for a suitable distribution, which describes the probabilistic behavior of losses arising from this type of risk. There is a strong utilization of the PickandsBalkemade Haan theorem used in extreme value theory. Roughly speaking, distribution of a random variable exceeding a given high threshold, converges in distribution to generalized Pareto distribution. The theorem is subsequently used in estimating the high percentile from a simulated distribution. The simulated distribution is considered to be a compound model for the aggregate loss random variable. It is constructed as a combination of frequency distribution for the number of losses random variable and the socalled severity distribution for individual loss random variable. The proposed model is then used to estimate a fi nal quantile, which represents a searched amount of capital requirement. This capital requirement is constituted as the amount of funds the bank is supposed to retain, in order to make up for the projected lack of funds. There is a given probability the capital charge will be exceeded, which is commonly quite small. Although a combination of some frequency distribution and some severity distribution is the common way to deal with the described problem, the final application is often considered to be problematic. Generally, there are some combinations for severity distribution of two or three, for instance, lognormal distributions with different location and scale parameters. Models like these usually do not have any theoretical background and in particular, the connecting of distribution functions has not been conducted in the proper way. In this work, we will deal with both problems. In addition, there is a derivation of maximum likelihood estimates of lognormal distribution for which hold F_LN(u) = p, where u and p is given. The results achieved can be used in the everyday practices of financial institutions for operational risks quantification. In addition, they can be used for the analysis of a variety of sample data with socalled heavy tails, where standard distributions do not offer any help. As an integral part of this work, a CD with source code of each function used in the model is included. All of these functions were created in statistical programming language, in SPLUS software. In the fourth annex, there is the complete description of each function and its purpose and general syntax for a possible usage in solving different kinds of problems.
